By Vivienne Sanders
The Access to History sequence is the preferred and depended on sequence for AS- and A-level historical past scholars. the hot variations mix the entire strengths of this well-loved sequence with a brand new layout and contours that let all scholars entry to the content material and examine abilities had to in achieving examination good fortune. Civil Rights within the united states, 1945-68 has been written particularly to aid the Edexcel and AQA AS devices for the 2008 necessities. It attracts on revered and best-selling content material from Race kinfolk within the united states, 1860-1981 and adapts this content material so that it will disguise the necessities of the shorter devices. Tracing the improvement of African American civil rights within the united states, this identify levels from segregation within the Fifties to the expansion of radicalism within the sixties. through the publication, key dates, phrases, and concerns are highlighted, and ancient interpretations of key debates are defined. precis diagrams are incorporated to consolidate wisdom and figuring out of the interval, and exam-style questions and assistance written by way of examiners for every exam board give you the chance to advance examination skills.
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Extra resources for Access to History. Civil Rights in the USA 1945-68
Black law professor Charles Houston of Howard University directed NAACP’s legal campaign after 1934. Houston insisted that NAACP should employ black lawyers. At Howard he had trained a black lawyer élite for this task. In 1936 NAACP hired his star pupil, Thurgood Marshall (‘lean, hard, and Hollywood handsome’, according to Roy Wilkins). Houston and Marshall led the ﬁght against segregated education in the 1930s and 1940s, working to involve black communities in litigation at 30 | Civil Rights in the USA 1945–68 Proﬁle: Roy Wilkins 1901–81 1901 1905 1923 1931 1934 1955 1960s 1965–8 1970s 1977 – Born in St Louis, Missouri, son of a brick kiln worker who had ﬂed Mississippi because he had beaten a white man over a racial insult – After his mother died, brought up by his uncle, a railroad porter, in St Paul, Minnesota, in a middle class home in a relatively integrated neighbourhood – Graduated from the University of Minnesota; during his time at university he was the ﬁrst black reporter for the college newspaper and an active member of local NAACP branch – Became a reporter in Kansas City, and secretary of Kansas City branch of NAACP – NAACP leader Walter White asked Wilkins to become his assistant – Became editor of NAACP’s magazine Crisis – After Walter White died, unanimously elected NAACP leader (held post for 22 years) – Increasingly criticised by blacks who opposed his beliefs in integration and his conﬁdence in US institutions.
NAACP membership had rocketed from 50,000 in 1941 to 450,000 by 1945, testifying to the impact of the war on black consciousness and activism. Thanks to Randolph’s pressure there was, by 1945, the ﬁrst federal agency for decades that aimed to promote equality of economic opportunity for black workers. Although FEPC (see page 34) was not particularly successful, its establishment was nevertheless signiﬁcant. The Black Situation at the End of the Second World War | 39 the South, Jim Crow laws (see page 15) ensured that blacks were second-class citizens, lacking in political, social, economic and legal equality.
This education increased their economic opportunities and made them more articulate in demanding equality. The Black Situation at the End of the Second World War | 37 2 | Blacks Outside the South in Late 1945 Many Southern blacks migrated to Northern cities such as New York, Midwestern cities such as Chicago and Western cities such as Los Angeles, in search of greater equality. Although life was usually far better than in the South, there was still inequality. (a) Black political rights outside the South in late 1945 Outside the South, black Americans were able to vote in late 1945.