By Daniel A. Griffith, Gerard B. M. Heuvelink (auth.), Anthony G.O. Yeh, Wenzhong Shi, Yee Leung, Chenghu Zhou (eds.)
This e-book offers a cross-section of state-of-the-art examine parts being pursued via researchers in spatial info dealing with and geographic details technological know-how (GIS). It provides chosen papers at the development of spatial info dealing with and GIS in electronic cartography, geospatial facts integration, geospatial database and knowledge infrastructures, geospatial information modeling, GIS for sustainable improvement, the interoperability of heterogeneous spatial facts structures, location-based companies, spatial wisdom discovery and information mining, spatial determination help platforms, spatial facts constructions and algorithms, spatial facts, spatial information caliber and uncertainty, the visualization of spatial facts, and net and instant purposes in GIS.
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35 Fig. H. Ma et al. 3) nÀ1 where m ¼ sample mean xi ¼ value of element content n ¼ sample size. In this paper the dispersion of each estimator from its true value during the 1,000 simulations for each sampling method and sample size is compared (Chen et al. 2009). 6 show the CV from four sampling models of Mo elements, stratified by soil type, geological surface, hierarchical cluster, and geochronology. 7 shows which stratified method is the most efficient. 9 simple random model 8 spatial simple random model CV(%) 7 6 sratified model 5 spatial stratified model 4 3 2 1 0 Fig.
Better. Here, it means that the factor whose spatial distribution is closer to the real distribution of soil element content should be selected as knowledge stratification. At the same sample size. Spatial stratified sampling takes spatial dependence into account and keeps samples, together, in the same spacial knowledge layer, so stratification by geological surface has higher efficiency than other stratification methods. By comparing two kinds of stratification methods, by soil type and geochronology, it can be seen that, in the case of smaller sample sizes, stratification by soil type yields higher accuracy than by geochronology, but yields lower accuracy in larger sample sizes.
1 g soil 3 copies. They were then mixed with 3 ml of Glass Acid, 1 ml perchloric acid, and 1 ml hydrofluoric acid and placed into an oven, for 5 h, to bake and nitrify. Finally, they were put on an electric heating board for 1–2 h, mixed with water to give a uniform volume of 10 ml, for testing (Zhang et al. 2008). An ULTIMA inductively coupled plasma spectrometer was used to measure 16 elements in the soil: Al,As,Ca,Cu,Fe, K,Mg,Mo,Na,Ni,Pb,Se,Sn,Sr,V, and Zn. In this paper, Mo contents are used as sampling data.