By Vanda Villanyi
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Gydesan and Maimann calculate the unit energy requirements for the fabrication phase by determining the material content of the light bulb and multiplying this value by the energy content found in the corresponding material. ” Therefore, it is assumed that the disposal energy per bulb is equal to zero. 4 0 0 Wattage Equivalency (W) Disposal Energy Per Bulb (kWh) Table 1. Light Bulb Characteristics (Gydesan and Maimann, 1991). Applying these values with the number of replacements required throughout the planning period, the total energy required in the fabrication and disposal stages can be calculated using the following formulas: (2) = = (3) = = where, F = total energy required to fabricate the light bulbs (kWh); eF = fabrication energy requirement per light bulb (kWh); M = number of light bulbs requiring replacement or disposal throughout the planning period; D = total energy required to dispose of the light bulbs (kWh); and eD = disposal energy requirement per light bulb (kWh).
Exposure to PM has primarily been associated with morbidity and mortality due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, but other organs may also be affected (WHO 2006). A key process in the development and acute exacerbations of these diseases is inflammation. 1 2 APHEA: Air Pollution and Health in Europe A NMMAPS: National Mortality and Morbidity of Air Pollution Study 48 Air Pollution Inflammation involves a variety of cells, including migrating immune cells that may enter inflamed organs. In the lung the first line of defence includes the phagocytising macrophages and the epithelial cells (Figure 1).
Heating Degree-Days (HDD) and Cooling Degree-Days (CDD) are quantitative units that add up the differences between the mean daily temperature and the average indoor temperature of 18°C over an entire year. , 6 + 2 + 8). Thermal resistance of a building envelope is key to determining a household’s heat loss or gain. A building envelope is effectively a membrane that separates indoor and outdoor environments whose primary function is to control heat flow through the use of thermal insulation. e. Rvalues).