Airbus A320 SOP 07Descent

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Further work is needed for a resolution of these problems. Humidity change also affects avalanche and streamer development, since the attachment coefficient is increased relative to the ionisation coefficient [10]. Much more data is available in this area, from outdoor testing and from laboratory experiments, than is the case with density variation. 3 kPa and 293 K [23, 50]. This is also the rate at which the sparkover of the rod–plane gap increases under lightning impulse [49] where, as noted earlier, the breakdown is determined solely by streamer growth in the gap.

IEE A, Phys. Sci. Meas. Instrum. Manage. Educ.

A simple example will illustrate. Consider a rod–plane gap of, say, 2 m, to which a positive slow front impulse voltage is applied. At a velocity of 2 × 104 ms−1 a leader would take of the order of 100 μs to cross the full gap (in fact somewhat less because its own leader corona would occupy a significant length). Taking a range of rise times from 1 μs to, say, 250 μs, it is clear that as they increase, the leader can traverse progressively larger proportions of the gap. The breakdown voltage Vs is correspondingly reduced on account of the fact that the gradient of the leader is lower than that of streamers.

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