By B. Guy Peters
Very important additions to this 10th variation contain extended discussions of coverage tools, the demanding situations for public policymakers awarded via the ongoing gridlock in Washington, the reasonable Care Act, better schooling investment, reproductive rights, and homosexual rights. New insurance of fracking controversies, race and racial profiling, and the legalization of marijuana retains scholars brand new with fresh coverage debates and concerns. New to this variation: *The 10th version comprises improved and up-to-date discussions of *policy tools; *gridlock in Washington and the demanding situations for public coverage makers; *continuing responses to the 2008 fiscal problem; *the cheap Care Act; *higher schooling investment and the coed debt concern; *reproductive rights; and *gay rights. *New to the amount is a overview of fracking controversies and attendant alterations in power rules, problems with race and racial profiling in legislation enforcement coverage, and the legalization of marijuana. *Updated tables and charts make sure scholars have entry to the newest info within the box and new pictures illustrate details.
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Extra resources for American Public Policy: Promise and Performance
This spillover effect is important in bringing new programs onto the agenda and in explaining the expansion of the public sector. 18 For example, the interstate highway program of the federal government was designed to improve transportation; it was also justified as a means of improving transportation for defense purposes. One effect of building superhighways, however, has been to make it easier for people to work in the city and live in the suburbs. Consequently, the roads assisted the flight to the suburbs by those who could afford to move.
As the American population continues to become older, on the average, expenditures for this social group can only be expected to continue. And although the elderly have greater claims to entitlement programs than do other groups, once a clientele has been created it is difficult to withdraw benefits. Therefore, cutting the size of government will be hard indeed. Summary American government in the 198os is large, complex, and to some degree unorganized. Each individual section of that government, be it a local government or an agency of the federal government, tends to know what it wants, 31 PART ONE: THE NATURE OF PUBLIC POLICY but the system as a whole is somewhat disorganized and lacking in overall coordination and control.
As already pointed out, drawing any clear distinction between public and private sectors in the modern mixed-economy welfare state is difficult, but let us concentrate on expenditures and personnel that are clearly governmental. As such, these figures inevitably understate the size and importance of government in the United States. 2 contains information about the increasing size of the public sector in the United States during the post-World War n era, and the changing distribution of the total levels of expenditures and employment.