By Thompson, Hanne-Ruth
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G. amta stuttering but a:m mango. This does not affect the phonemic status of these vowels. Chapter 2. Sound system /i/ a high front vowel which can be either short as in kintu but or long as in di:n day. /i/ can form minimal pairs with /e/ (ki: what – ke: who) or /a/ (di:n day – da:n gift) but the distinction between i and i: is purely distributional. /i/ can appear at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of words: initial medial final iti end citḥ i letter tumi you /e/ a mid-high front vowel which can be open as in kena buy or closed as in ke: who.
Others are easily recognisable. Below is a list of the common conjuncts in Bangla with their component parts. There is now a move in both West Bengal and Bangladesh to simplify conjunct letters by simply writing the component parts, eg instead of ∆ for k (k) + u (t) some modern books write ⁄u from which the two components can easily be recognised. However, Bengali schoolchildren still need to learn the original (and often more elegant) forms in order to read older texts. k + u (k + t) = ∆ (kt) mvy∆ mukti k + r (k + r) = œ (kr) Svœbhr śukrôbar k + X (k + ṣ) = Ç (kṣ) afpÇh �pekṣa W + k (ṅ + k) = ¬ (ṅk) a¬ �ṅkô W + g (ṅ + g = Ã (ṅg) sfÃ s�ṅge c + c (c + c) = Éc (cc) bhÉch bacca c + C (c + ch) = ÉC (cch) iÉCh iccha z + z (j + j) = ° (jj) l°h l�jja z + õ (j + ñ) = “ (jñ) yb“hn bijñan õ + c (ñ + c) = Å (ñc) aÅl �ñcx�l õ + z (ñ + j) = ´ (ñj) `gy´ ge ñji t + t (t� + t�) = Ñ (t�t�) ThÑh t�hat�t�a N + t (ṇ + t�) = ∂t (ṇt�) G∂th gh�ṇt�a N + T (ṇ + t�h) = ÷ (ṇt�h) k÷ k�ṇt�hô N + d (ṇ + d�) = ’ (ṇd�) Th’h t�haṇd�a u + u (t + t) = ≠ (tt) \≠r uttôr u + r (t + r) = « (tr) mh« matrô q + q (d + d) = Ø (dd) \fØSj uddesyô q + Q (d + dh) = º (ddh) xvº yuddhô q + b (d + v) = # (dv) #~# dv�ndvô q + B (d + bh) = À (dbh) aÀvu �dbhut n + u (n + t) = ™ (nt) a™r �ntôr n + u + r (n + t + r) = ì (ntr) mìY môntrī Bengali n + U (n + th) = √ (nth) gî√ grônthô n + q (n+ d) = ~q nd m~q m�ndô n + Q (n + dh) = í ndh aí �ndhô n + n (n + n) = ê (nn) yBê bhinnô p + u (p + t) = ú (pt) uú t�ptô p + p (p + p) = ù (pp) gù g�ppô p + r (p + r) = — (pr) —hN praṇ b + q (b + d) = ûq (bd) Sûq ś�bdô b + Q b + dh) = bÜ (bdh) lvbÜ lubdhô m + p (m + p) = ôp (mp) kôp k�mpô m + B (m + bh) = ® (mbh) s®b s�mbh�b r + k (r + k) = kò (rk) ukò t�rkô r + u (r + t) = uò (rt) mVyuò mūrti S + c (ś + c) = Ÿc (śc) pyŸcm pôścim X + t (ṣ + t�) = § (ṣt�) ymy§ miṣt�i X + T (ṣ + t�h = ©T (ṣt�h) `Sî©T śreṣt�hô X + N (ṣ + ṇ) = ” (ṣṇ) \” uṣṇô s + k (s + k) = ãk (sk) ãkvl skul s + u (s + t) = Ä (st) rhÄh rasta s + u + r (s + t + r) = ã« (str) ymyã« mistri s + U (s + th) = ñ (sth) bjbñh bybôstha s + b (s + v) = … (sv) …gò sv�rgô M + n (h + n) = – (hn) yc– cihnô M + m (h + m) = Æ (hm) bîÆ br�hmô consonant vowel combinations g + \ (g + u) = ç (gu) gvMh guha u + r + \ (t + r + u) = «ß (tru) «ßyt trut�i n + u + \ (n + t + u) = ≤ yk≤ kintu r + \ (r + u) = rß (ru) rßyt rut�i r + | (r + ū) = r∑ (rū) r∑ph rūpa S + \ (ś + u) = ¿ (śu) ¿œbhr śukrôbar Chapter 3.
Bangla, alongside Assamese, Oriya and Bhojpuri (Bihari) developed out of the Magadhi branch, also known as Eastern Indo-Aryan. Chapter 1. Introduction The Bangla language can be dated back as far as 1000 years ago. The oldest texts which can be identified as being written in Bangla were found in Nepal by the Bengali scholar Haraprasad Shastri and published in 1909. They are Buddhist devotional songs known as Charyapada and dated between 900 and 1100 AD. It was during this period that Assamese, Oriya and Bangla split off from Sanskrit and from one another.