By Homer Alfred Neal, Tobin Smith, Jennifer McCormick
Technological know-how and expertise are answerable for nearly each strengthen in our glossy caliber of existence. but technology is not just approximately laboratories, telescopes and particle accelerators. Public coverage exerts a big impact on how the clinical neighborhood conducts its paintings. past Sputnik is a complete survey of the sphere to be used as an introductory textbook in classes and a reference advisor for legislators, scientists, newshounds, and advocates looking to comprehend the technology policy-making procedure. targeted case studies---on subject matters from cloning and stem mobilephone study to native land defense and technology education---offer readers the chance to check genuine situations of policymaking at paintings. Authors and specialists Homer A. Neal, Tobin L. Smith, and Jennifer B. McCormick suggest functional how you can enforce sound public coverage in technology and expertise and spotlight how those rules will consultant the result of medical discovery for years to come.Homer A. Neal is the Samuel A. Goudsmit unusual college Professor of Physics, period in-between President Emeritus, and vp for study Emeritus on the collage of Michigan, and is a former member of the U.S. nationwide technological know-how Board.Tobin L. Smith is affiliate vp for Federal family members on the organization of yank Universities. He was once previously Assistant Director of the collage of Michigan and MIT Washington, DC, offices.Jennifer B. McCormick is an Assistant Professor of Biomedical Ethics within the department of normal inner medication on the Mayo collage of drugs in Rochester, Minnesota, and is the affiliate Director of the study Ethics source, a part of the Mayo Clinic's NIH scientific Translational technological know-how Award examine programs.GO past SPUTNIK ONLINE--Visit www.science-policy.net for the newest information, instructing assets, studying publications, and internship possibilities within the 21st-Century box of technology policy."Beyond Sputnik is a readable, concise, but remarkably complete advent to modern technological know-how coverage. it's with out 'wonkishness' but serves the wishes of policymakers and scholars alike. simply because technological know-how and know-how coverage is of primary value within the twenty-first century this available quantity is a godsend."---Charles M. Vest, President of the nationwide Academy of Engineering and Vice Chair of the nationwide examine Council of the nationwide Academies of Sciences and Engineering"This hugely researched e-book is a treasure trove for somebody desirous about technology coverage when it comes to such demanding situations as supplying power, retaining the surroundings, assuring healthcare, developing jobs, and more."---Norman Augustine, retired Chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin company and recipient of the 2008 Vannevar Bush Award from the nationwide technology Board"Science coverage is a topic of transforming into value within the usa, but there has lengthy been a vacuum between textbooks within the box. past Sputnik fills it wonderfully and may be greeted with enthusiasm by way of scholars and school alike. Even those that have practiced the paintings for years will research from it."---Albert Teich, Director of technological know-how and coverage courses on the American organization for the development of Science"Homer A. Neal, Tobin L. Smith, and Jennifer B. McCormick have written a landmark paintings calling for a countrywide attempt to revive our nation's energy within the fields of technological know-how, strength, and schooling, as we did within the extraordinary 12 months following Sputnik. the following preident may still learn past Sputnik and settle for this name to motion as did President Eisenhower."---Ambassador David M. Abshire, President of the heart for the examine of the Presidency, Cofounder and vp of the guts for Strategic and foreign stories, and President of the Richard Lounsbery Foundation"At final we now have a textual content that tells the tale from the place A. Hunter Dupree left off; an exceptional center textual content for classes in technology and know-how coverage, DC policymakers, and a person who must wake up to hurry within the box . . . The e-book that we have got all been ready for."---Christopher T. Hill, Professor of Public coverage and know-how, George Mason collage
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Research enterprise, i n which taxpayer dollars are appropriated for government-sponsored scientific re search and awarded on the basis of scientific excellence, is envied around the world, and many countries are now trying to replicate it. Its tremendous success is due to an emphasis on basic research conducted and guided within a structure of interlocking relationships between govern ment agencies, universities, national laboratories, and in dustry, all under the umbrella of post-World War II na tional science policy.
Beginning i n 1 93 9 and continuing through the war years, Bush had rendered part-time service as a consul tant to the government. 3 In spite of their apparent differences, the two men shared a deep interest in ensuring a peacetime role for sci ence. Among other things, they pointed to the success of wartime initiatives like those in medicine. During the war, research supported by the Office of Scientific Research and Development ( O SRD ) led to the production and widespread use of penicillin; an effective and standard ized means to fight against malaria, including the devel opment of DDT; new blood substitutes, such as serum al bumin; and the use of immune globulin to fight infection.
First, proj ects are supported based on merit in the competitive marketplace of ideas. Second, the federal in- vestment in university-based research does double duty, paying for research while helping to educate the next gen eration of scientists, engineers, and scholars. And third, the government shares in the costs of research-both di rect costs such as salaries, equipment, and supplies, and indirect costs such as facilities and administrative ( F&A) expenses incurred during the research. In this chapter, we provide historical insights into this unique system and address questions such as these: What are the system's constitutional underpinnings ?