Biodiversity in the Marine Environment by Philippe Goulletquer

By Philippe Goulletquer

Oceans and seas conceal greater than 70 % of the Earth and carry terribly rich
biodiversity, all the way down to nice depths the place ample existence varieties thrive close to ocean ridges. yet marine biodiversity is still poorly identified and faces a variety of threats. Endangered through ever-increasing pressures from human actions, it's also delicate to climate-based disturbances, particularly their outcomes on ocean acidification.
Contents
1 the significance of Marine Biodiversity
Key Features
Hierarchical Components
The practical value of Biodiversity
Marine Biodiversity and surroundings Services
2 The affects of Human actions on Marine Biodiversity
The Strategic worth of Research
3 prestige and Trends
How Many Marine Species are There?
Taxonomic Records
Cryptic Species
The DNA Barcode
The force to spot New Species
The “Taxonomic Impediment”
Extinct Species
Endangered Species
Ecosystems stressed: The Deep Sea
Climate Change
Acidification, a “Chemical replicate” of Ocean Warming
Spatial Patterning of Characteristics
Large-Scale Patterns
Local styles (Habitats)
Habitat Classification
Population constitution and Connectivity
Biological Invasions
Temporal Patterns
Geological Scale
Historical Scale
Cascading Effects
Fisheries Trends—Other makes use of of Marine Ecosystems
Dedicated Time Series
4 Conceptualising Biodiversity
Conceptual Frameworks for Relationships among Biodiversity and Human Societies
Choice of version Framework
5 Measuring Biodiversity
Measuring Genetic Diversity
Measuring Species Diversity
Assessing the price of Marine Biodiversity
Analytical equipment correct to the Human Dimensions of
Marine Biodiversity
Methods of Social technological know-how Analysis
Understanding the Human Context
Understanding Human Interactions
Understanding expenses and advantages of Biodiversity Protections
Understanding affects of activities to guard Marine Biodiversity
Marine and Coastal Biodiversity symptoms (SINP-Mer together Operated by way of Ifremer, MNHN and AAMP)
6 Drivers of adjustments in Biodiversity and its Uses
Environmental Drivers: A operating Framework
Evolutionary Timescales
Ecological Timescales
Causes of Pressures
Importance of Disturbance: Biodiversity, Resilience and Robustness of Marine Ecosystems
The medical Challenge
Knowns
Unknowns
Human Drivers
Knowns
Unknowns
Social
Cultural
7 built-in eventualities and Policies
Policies and choice Support
Developing Scenarios
Qualitative studying from prior Experience
Quantitative studying from previous Experience
Learning from Analytical and Mathematical Reasoning
Learning from digital Experiments (in silico)
Learning through Doing
Quantitative equipment, versions and built-in Assessment
Coupling Ecological, Environmental and Socioeconomic Models
Diversity vs. Homogeneity of Models
Modelling: situations and evaluate Challenges
Complex Dynamic Systems
Multi-Criteria Issues
Sustainability and Intergenerational Equity
Precaution, probability research and Management
Adaptive Management
Governance, Coordination and Compliance
8 learn Needs
The Framework: Environmental Research
Research Systems
Sustaining surroundings Services
Naturalistic Dimensions
Linking Ecological features and surroundings Services
Measuring the Genetic foundation of Biodiversity
Differentiating Evolutionary and Ecological Time Scales
Putting Fish shares again of their Ecosystems
Impacts of actual facilities and pollutants on Biodiversity
Human Dimensions of Research
Data Issues
Cultures, associations, Appropriation
Demographics and Economics
Decision-Making Processes
Developing Modelling: A Summarising process

Show description

Read Online or Download Biodiversity in the Marine Environment PDF

Best marine biology books

Compendium of Trace Metals and Marine Biota: Volume 1: Plants and Invertebrates

Each one e-book has major goals1. make certain baseline concentrations of metals and metalloids in tissues of consultant box populations of estuarine coastal, and open ocean organisms (Book 1:algae and macrophytes, protists, sponges, coelenterates, molluscs, crustaceans, bugs, chaetognaths, annelids, echinoderms, and tunicates) (Book 2: elasmobranchs, fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals) and their importance to organism overall healthiness and to the overall healthiness in their shoppers.

Fish Oil Replacement and Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquaculture Feeds

Specialists are predicting that call for for marine fish oil will quickly outstrip offer, developing severe urgency in the worldwide aquafeed to discover achievable choices. Fish Oil substitute and replacement Lipid resources in Aquaculture Feeds is the 1st complete assessment of this multifaceted, advanced factor.

Under the Sea Wind

Lower than the ocean Wind is a vintage desolate tract experience to which all nature writing is in comparison. The designated secret and sweetness of the ocean is the environment for Rachel Carson's memorable portrait of the ocean birds and sea creatures that inhabit the jap coasts of North the USA. In a series of riveting adventures alongside the shore, in the open sea, and down within the twilight depths, Rachel Carson introduces us to the winds and currents of the sea as printed within the lives of Scomber the mackerel and Anguilla the eel.

Marine Mammals and Noise

Discusses how good marine animals listen, how noisy the oceans became, and what results those new sounds have on marine mammals.

Additional info for Biodiversity in the Marine Environment

Sample text

93 between the “stations” index (shown here) and the “EOF” index instance, have highlighted the variety of responses from different marine organisms to alternating NAO phases (amongst them are Ottersen et al. 2001; Stige et al. 2006; also see remarks by Kimmel and Hameed 2008). Ecosystems Under Pressure: The Deep Sea  41 Contrary to the NAO, which is an atmospheric forcing (thus, with fast dynamics), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is the slow variation in sea surface temperature (SST) occurring in the North Atlantic between the equator and 70° N.

13 Variations from 1864–2011 in the winter (November to March) NAO index. 93 between the “stations” index (shown here) and the “EOF” index instance, have highlighted the variety of responses from different marine organisms to alternating NAO phases (amongst them are Ottersen et al. 2001; Stige et al. 2006; also see remarks by Kimmel and Hameed 2008). Ecosystems Under Pressure: The Deep Sea  41 Contrary to the NAO, which is an atmospheric forcing (thus, with fast dynamics), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is the slow variation in sea surface temperature (SST) occurring in the North Atlantic between the equator and 70° N.

The discovery of new marine habitats and communities and the growing threats to marine species from environmental change and disturbances, make it increasingly important to develop rapid and robust ways of describing and cataloguing marine biodiversity. Hebert et al. (2003) introduced the concept of a DNA barcode, and proposed a new approach to species identification which could overcome many of the limitations mentioned above. The method is based on the premise that the sequence analysis of a short fragment (658 nucleotide base-pairs) of a single gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, commonly called COI), enables unequivocal identification of almost all animal species.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.61 of 5 – based on 41 votes