By David, Bruno; Saucède, Thomas
The Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent is significant, specifically, its background, its isolation, and weather, making it a distinct "laboratory case" for experimental evolution, variation and ecology. Its evolutionary background of edition offer a wealth of knowledge at the functioning of the biosphere and its power.
The Southern Ocean is the results of a heritage of approximately forty million years marked by means of the outlet of the Straits south of Australia and South the USA and excessive cooling. The violence of its climate, its very low temperatures, the formation of big ice-covered parts, as its isolation makes the Southern Ocean a global aside.
This ebook discusses the results for the evolution, ecology and biodiversity of the zone, together with endemism, slowed metabolism, sturdiness, gigantism, and its larval levels; gains which make this tremendous ocean a "natural laboratory" for exploring the ecological adaptive methods, scalable to paintings in severe environmental stipulations. this present day, biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is dealing with worldwide switch, fairly in neighborhood warming and acidification of water our bodies. not able emigrate additional south, how will she cope, if any, to viewers from the North?
- Designed for curious readers to find the gigantic ocean surrounding the main remoted and such a lot inhospitable continent at the planet.
- Describes the Southern Ocean dealing with biodiversification as a result of worldwide change
- Authored by way of scientists with event of expeditions to the Southern Ocean
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Extra resources for Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean
Map of the Southern Ocean representing the main oceanic fronts. 3. 1. 9°C, the freezing point for a salt content of 35 grams per liter, and not at 0°C, as is the case for freshwater. When the sea freezes, sea ice is formed. In contrast with the Arctic Ocean, where sea ice remains present throughout the year (although the amount of ice has decreased considerably over the past decade), the ice formed in winter on the Southern Ocean melts almost completely in summer, a phenomenon unrelated to global warming.
The effects of our planet’s orbital parameters and a decrease in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 are the most likely factors [LEF 12]. Reduced obliquity (tilt of the Earth’s rotational axis in relation to its orbital plane) would have resulted in colder summers at higher latitudes. In addition, decreased greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, resulting from an increase in the draw-down of atmospheric CO2 through the chemical weathering of Alpine and Himalayan mountains, could also have contributed to the cooling.
At the bottom of the Southern Ocean, the waters are generally very cold, with temperatures below 1°C, with few exceptions (such as the bottom waters of the Kerguelen Plateau). The main contrasts are seen around the continent between the Antarctic Peninsula, which has relatively “warm” bottom waters, reaching temperatures of 1 to 2°C, and the East Antarctic and the Weddell Sea, where water temperatures are always below 0°C. The bottom waters of the Peninsula are in fact influenced by the upwelling of warmer circum-Antarctic deep waters, while the Weddell Sea and the East Antarctic are fed by deep, particularly cold, Antarctic waters.