By Michael E. Fleet
content material: 1. creation --
2. Apatite-type constitution --
three. Crystal chemistry and geochemistry --
four. Synthesis of carbonate apatites --
five. X-ray constructions --
6. Chemical spectroscopy --
7. Carbonate apatite crystal chemistry --
eight. organic apatites.
Read or Download Carbonated hydroxyapatite : materials, synthesis, and applications PDF
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Extra info for Carbonated hydroxyapatite : materials, synthesis, and applications
The 100 g batches were reﬂuxed continuously for ﬁve days. Then, the lid of the reaction vessel was removed, compressed air was introduced to promote evaporation of water, and the temperature was increased from 70 to 150◦ C over a period of 10 hours. 3 Type A CHAP Following Elliott,10 the high-temperature synthesis of type A CHAP was pioneered by Wallaeys81 who reacted Ca3 (PO4 )2 and CaCO3 at 900◦ C in dry CO2 . The reaction is incomplete at low (nearatmospheric) CO2 pressure but goes to 70% completion at 1 to 2 MPa pressure.
However, apatite is not a signiﬁcant ore mineral for rare earths. , monazite, xenotime), carbonates, and oxides. 59 Moreover, apatite could make a signiﬁcant contribution to the radiogenic heat production in the Earth’s silicate mantle. The uncertainty here is that the overall distribution of apatite in the mantle is unknown, because the opportunities for sampling mantle peridotite are very limited. 5% by volume, apatite could account for about two-thirds of the heat production in the upper mantle.
37 mmol/L as magnesium nitrate. After the 2-hour reaction, the temperature was raised to 100◦ C and the system reﬂuxed for 2 hours; then the precipitate was washed and dried. Carbonate only apatites were also produced using the same procedure. 93 synthesized sodium-bearing type B CHAP after the method of LeGeros,88 by dropwise addition of calcium nitrate solution into sodium phosphate-carbonate solutions at 80◦ C. The precipitate was dried at 70◦ C then heated at 400◦ C for 24 hours to eliminate inter- and intracrystalline water.