By Antonio Gianguzza, Ezio Pelizzetti, Silvio Sammartano
This ebook discusses fresh advancements within the research of chemical techniques and equilibria within the marine surroundings and within the air/water and water/sediment interfaces. The chemical cycle of carbon in addition to the impact of natural elements at the speciation and distribution of inorganic and organometallic elements are generally mentioned. a lot of the hot growth within the sector is the direct results of complex analytical applied sciences and chemometric functions that are highlighted within the publication.
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Extra resources for Chemical Processes in Marine Environments
1999) had to correct for these effects. They made these corrections using the equations developed by Gruber and Sarmiento (1997). The patterns of the penetration of CO 2 in the Indian Ocean determined by both methods are quite similar (Fig. 22). The calculated penetration of CO 2 into the oceans can be compared to model estimates. The model used by Sabine et al. (1999) and Gruber (1998) is the Princeton Ocean Biogeochemistry Model (OBM), which is based on the circulation of Toggweiler et al. (1989) and the biological and physical pumps of Sarmiento et al.
The depth profiles of Pe0 2 for the Atlantic and Pacific oceans are shown in Fig. 11. These values were calculated from TA and Te0 2 , so they are not as accurate as direct measurements. The general trends, however, are real and as expected. The surface values are similar to atmospheric values. The values increase to a maximum (500 Jlatm in the North Atlantic Ocean and 1200 Jlatm in the Pacific Ocean) at 1 km due to the oxidation of plant material. The higher values at 1 km in the Pacific Ocean are due to the higher productivity of the surface waters resulting in the production of more organic carbon.
An example of such a separation is shown in Fig. 9 using the Atlantic data. The relative importance, based on the magnitude of the changes, is in the order of temperature, chlorophyll and salinity. This way of examining the importance of physical and biological processes neglects the importance of nutrients and the formation of phytoplankton blooms that can pull down the surface values of Pc0 2• The effect of primary production on the levels of Pc0 2 and TC0 2 have recently been demonstrated (see Fig.