By Mihail Ionescu
Polyurethanes are the most dynamic teams of polymers, they locate use in approximately each point of recent existence, in functions comparable to furnishings, bedding, seating and device panels for vehicles, shoe soles, thermoinsulation, carpet backings, packaging, adhesives, sealants, binders and as coatings.
In 2004 10.6 million lots of polyurethanes have been produced, in 2014 the realm construction used to be with reference to 20 million plenty. within the final decade (2005-2015) vital, all over the world advancements within the region of polyols for polyurethanes have been conducted, in particular for polyols from renewable assets, defined intimately during this moment version of the book.
The major uncooked fabrics used for the creation of PU are polyols and isocyanates. the 1st of those is the topic of this quantity handbook.
Volume 1 is devoted to polyols for elastic PU (flexible foams, elastomers and so on).
Volume 2 is devoted to polyols for inflexible PU (rigid foams, wooden replacement, packaging, flotation fabrics and so on).
The e-book considers the uncooked fabrics used to construct the PU polymeric structure. It covers the chemistry and expertise of oligo-polyol fabrication, the features of a number of the oligo-polyol households and the results of the oligo-polyol constitution at the houses of the ensuing PU. It offers the main points of oligo-polyol synthesis, and explains the chemical and physico-chemical subtleties of oligo-polyol fabrication.
This publication hyperlinks info and knowledge in regards to the chemistry and expertise of oligo-polyols for PU, offering a entire assessment of:
- Basic PU chemistry
- Key oligo-polyol characteristics
- Synthesis of the most oligo-polyol households, together with: polyether polyols, crammed polyether polyols, polyester polyols, polybutadiene polyols, acrylic polyols, polysiloxane polyols, aminic polyols
- Polyols from renewable resources
- Flame retardant polyols
- Chemical restoration of polyols
- Relationships among polyol constitution and PU properties
This ebook may be of curiosity to all experts operating with polyols for the manufacture of PU and to all researchers that might wish to recognize extra approximately polyol chemistry.
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Additional resources for Chemistry and technology of polyols for polyurethanes
The utilisation of hydroxy acids as neutralising agents is based on the following principle: if the acid used for neutralisation has a minimum of 1–2 hydroxyl groups, the potassium salt is integrated in the rigid PU structure and the mobility of potassium ions decreases markedly as does the possibility of catalysis. Hydroxy acids, such as, lactic acid, dimethylolpropionic acid, or partially propoxylated phosphoric acid, were used successfully, for the neutralisation of crude, alkaline polyether polyols.
8 °C]. 4. 5). The polymerisation reactor is charged with a polyol-catalyst mixture and, under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, PO (or EO) is added at the polymerisation temperature, preferable 105–125 °C for KOH or NaOH catalysts and 80–95 °C for tertiary amines. The single polyol from this group that needs special attention is sorbitol, which is delivered in the form of an aqueous solution of approximately 70%. It is possible to use solid sorbitol, which is delivered in the form of crystalline monohydrate, but it is much more expensive than liquid sorbitol (calculated as a dry substance) and more difficult to handle and melt.
7 °C), xylitol and all the amines (o-TDA: mp = 63–64 °C, MDA: mp = 92–93 °C), and b) Polyols which are solid at the PO polymerisation temperature, having higher mp (mp > 130 °C) such as: PER (mp = 253 °C), dipentaerythritol (mp = 222 °C), α-methyl glucoside (mp = 164–165 °C), sucrose (mp = 179–180 °C). In the case of the first group of polyols (a), the PO polyaddition reaction takes place without problems because all the reaction partners are liquid in the reaction conditions. 8 °C]. 4. 5). The polymerisation reactor is charged with a polyol-catalyst mixture and, under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, PO (or EO) is added at the polymerisation temperature, preferable 105–125 °C for KOH or NaOH catalysts and 80–95 °C for tertiary amines.