By Kyeongae Choe
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Extra info for City cluster development : toward an urban-led development strategy for Asia
Laquian. 2008. City Cluster Development: Toward an Urban-led Development Strategy for Asia. ADB Urban Development Series. September. • Low level of PSP interests • Lack of mechanisms for PSP • Lack of transparency and accountability • Widespread rent seeking • Competition among local units to attract investors can result in nonobservance of environmental laws and regulation 8. Private sector participation Strategize CCD • Encourage PSP for infrastructure investments; • Set up area-wide transportation systems and regional water and sanitation systems that limit pollution Step Up Mitigations as Development Opportunities • Tap central and provincial or state governments to provide more infrastructure Analyze Barriers/Weaknesses 7.
Figure 4: The Metro Manila National Capital Region Source: Laquian (2005) Greater Jakarta. The Greater Jakarta mega-urban region is made up of entities from three jurisdictional levels: the Special Region of the National Capital of Jakarta, locally referred to as Daerah Khusus Ibukota, or DKI Jakarta, which has the status of a 28 City Cluster Development province in the Indonesian system; the municipalities (kotamadya) of Bogor and Tangerang; and the districts or regencies (kabupaten) of Bogor, Tangerang, and Bekasi.
A few Asian cities are now cooperating with neighboring municipalities to formulate comprehensive CCD plans for a whole urban region, but in most cases, each city or town has adopted its own master plan, zoning codes, housing and building standards, and land use regulations. City clusters in Asia fall into at least four types in terms of geo-spatial forms: urban corridors, megacity-dominated clusters, subnational regional clusters, and transborder clusters. By its function, CCD involving industrial parks or economic special zones could be added as another typology, though largely it could fall under any of the four types in geo-spatial terms.