Clays and Clay Minerals in Natural and Synthetic Systems by B. Velde

By B. Velde

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As a result, the existence of quartz in an assemblage of clay minerals in these environments does not necessarily represent a compositional limit or saturation with respect t o Si02 and, therefore, such an assemblage cannot be considered, a priori, as a system with silica as an effective component in excess. Summarizing the natural occurrences of the silica polymorphs, it is possible to make several statements about the silicate-silica equilibria. In weathering situations, saturation of fluids with Si02 relative to any species of pure silica is probably only rarely achieved.

Weathered biotite, chlorite, illite, kaolinite, montmorillonites or other minerals (Burst, 1958). , the mica, has a reasonably constant composition but represents a mineral with several possibilities of solid solution (Hendricks and Ross, 1941). Individual pellets in different sedimentary environments generally present sharp boundaries with the enclosing matrix material, whatever its nature, leading to the corclusion that the original volume of the pellet might have been respected during the process.

The 4 10 phase relations are rather complicated in that they include minerals which do not fall on the compositional join studied nor do they form a simply designated planar series among the five components K, Al, Fe3+, Mg and Si. However, the summary relations are shown in the diagram representing the phases stable at medium temperatures (200-4OO0C) and 2 Kilobar pressure (Figure 7). The mineral types familiar in sediments and sedimentary rocks are present; micas, mica-like phases, fully expandable phases and mixed layered series.

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