By I. Soroka
This ebook is the 1st to provide a unified therapy of the topic. It concentrates at the houses of concrete, the constitution of cement, power, quantity adjustments and sturdiness in scorching environments and should be of significant price to scientists and engineers curious about smooth concrete expertise either in educational examine in addition to civil and structural engineering initiatives.
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Extra info for Concrete in Hot Environments (Modern Concrete Technology)
Bull. ASTM, 169 (1950), 39–45. , The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete (2nd edn). Edward Arnold, London, UK, 1970, p. 308. Verbeck, G. , Some physical and chemical aspects of high pressure steam curing. In Menzel Symposium on High Pressure Steam Curing (ACI Spec. Publ. SP 32). ACI, Detroit, USA, 1972, pp. 1–13. , Manufacture of Portland cement from phosphatic raw materials. In Proc. Symp. Chem. Cement, Tokyo, 1968, The Cement Association of Japan, Tokyo, pp. 93–105. , Factors influencing concrete strength.
Hence, as mentioned earlier, this part of the ash is known as flyash in the US, and pulverised fly-ash in the UK. The remaining part of the ash agglomerates to give what is known as ‘bottom ash’. Generally, fly-ash consists mostly of silicate glass containing mainly calcium, aluminium and alkalis. The exact composition, and the resulting properties of fly-ash, may vary considerably, and in this respect the CaO content is very important. Accordingly, fly-ashes are subdivided into two groups: low-calcium fly-ashes (CaO content less than 10%), and high-calcium fly-ashes (CaO content greater than 10%, and usually between 15 and 35%).
Similarly, the general term CSH is used to denote the composition of the calcium hydrates of the cement. e. some 40% and 18% of the total hydration products of the Alite and the Belite, respectively. The presence of calcium hydroxide in such a large quantity in the set cement has very important practical implications. e. the pH of the pore water exceeds 12·5), and explains, in turn, why Portland cement concrete is very vulnerable to acid attack, and why concrete, unless externally protected, is unsuitable for use in an acidic environment.