By Madeleine J. H. van Oppen, Janice M. Lough
One of the main dire effects of world weather swap for coral reefs is the elevated frequency and severity of mass coral bleaching occasions. This quantity offers details at the motives and results of coral bleaching for coral reef ecosystems, from the extent of person colonies to ecosystems and at diversified spatial scales, in addition to a close research of the way it may be detected and quantified. destiny situations in response to modelling efforts and the aptitude mechanisms of acclimatisation and edition are reviewed. The even more serious coral bleaching occasions skilled on Caribbean coral reefs (compared with these of the Indo-Pacific) are mentioned, as are the diversities in bleaching susceptibility and restoration which were saw on smaller geographic scales.
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Additional resources for Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences
Second, several dramatic peaks of one or two years duration show the episodic nature of bleaching. The trend of increasing bleaching occurrence is driven largely by mild bleaching records and, to a lesser extent, by moderate bleaching records (Fig. 1a). If only severe bleaching records are considered then this trend nearly disappears. This is Fig. K. Oliver et al. Fig. 1 (continued) especially apparent when viewed as the proportion of bleaching events classified as severe (Fig. 2). While the increase in mild bleaching could be due to an increase in chronic low-level stress to corals it is also possible that the increased awareness of coral bleaching (particularly after 1998) has led to increased reporting of small amounts of bleaching that largely went unreported before then.
Fig. 7 Global bleaching events and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). The shaded bars at the top indicate years when global bleaching events occurred. K. Oliver et al. Fig. 8 Australian bleaching events and the SOI. 5 Discussion The results presented here represent the most comprehensive record of coral bleaching available on a global level. They provide a clear quantitative record of bleaching frequency and periodicity for the past three decades. We have identified four periods (1983, 1987, 1998, 2005) that can be called global bleaching events in terms of bleaching frequency and intensity and the number of countries affected.
Despite increasing interest and commentary on global patterns of coral bleaching, this comprehensive dataset has not previously been analysed in any detail. The majority of available bleaching records consist of descriptive accounts of the location of bleaching and, with varying degrees of detail, an assessment of the extent and severity of bleaching. Water depth and coral species affected are often not recorded. In a small number of cases, formal surveys using quantitative or semiquantitative measurements provide estimates of the percentage of coral that bleached.