By Professor Dr. Yuri I. Sorokin (auth.)
Coral reef groups are one of the most intricate, mature and efficient ecosystems on the earth. Their job ended in the production of substantial lime buildings. Being super effective and having the functionality of a robust biofilter, coral reefs play an enormous position in worldwide biogeochemical approaches and within the copy of foodstuff assets in tropical marine areas. All facets of coral reef technology are coated systematically and at the foundation of a holistic atmosphere procedure. The geological heritage of coral reefs, their geomorphology in addition to biology together with group constitution of reef biota, their sensible features, physiological elements, biogeochemical metabolism, power stability, environmental difficulties and administration of assets are handled in detail.
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Extra resources for Coral Reef Ecology
Large masses of rubble material accumulate in the moat on the outer reef slope under the reef edge and also in shallows of the large lagoons exposed to surf action. 6mm (Fig. 7). The medium coral sands are formed mainly from calcareous plates of Halimeda, from the spiecules of soft corals, from shells of forams, and from lime Corals 20 19 12 7 1 45 10 12 24 20-40 Up to 15 21 Location Johnston atoll Rongerik atoll (lagoon) Enivetok atoll (lagoon) Rongelap atoll (lagoon) Bikini atoll (lagoon) Cocos atoll (lagoon) Barrier reef Batabano (Cuba) Ragged I.
1975) l0cmsec" 760 720 80 fO Fig. 3. Pulses of current over the flat to the lagoon; V current velocity ; T time; (After Roberts et al. 1983) causing the formation of ridges and keys on the reef crest. The flows, induced by waves on the flat, pass up it into the lagoeon, thus influencing water circulation also in the lagoon . The debit of water into the lagoon through the flat reachs 20-30% of total inflow at medium wave stress even in such a semi-open atoll as the Bikini (von Arx 1848). At the Enivetok atoll, which has two wide passes, nevertheless up to 80% of the water total comes into the lagoon over the flat, driven by the wave stress.
In lagoons the tides begin 1-3 h later than in the surrounding ocean and their heights are there much less, while the eb level in the lagoon is usually higher than in the ocean because of water trapped in it. 5m moreover than outside in the ocean (Fig. 1). In the lagoons of semi-closed ring reefs the tides are retarded by one-half of the tide cycle by 3 h, and start only when water begins to fill the lagoon, overflowing the reef flat (Fig. 1). Regions with small tides have 24-h cycles or mixed 24-h and 12-h cycles.