By Jason Sanders

This paintings provides a learn of equipment valuable for modeling and knowing dynamical platforms within the Galaxy. A ordinary coordinate process for the research of dynamical structures is the angle-action coordinate process. New tools for the approximation of the action-angle variables in most cases potentials are offered and mentioned. those new instruments are utilized to the development of dynamical versions for 2 of the Galaxy’s elements: tidal streams and the Galactic disc. Tidal streams are remnants of tidally stripped satellites within the Milky means that have the results of the big scale constitution of the Galactic gravitational capability, whereas the Galactic disc offers insights into the character of the Galaxy close to the solar. acceptable action-based versions are provided and mentioned for those elements, and prolonged to incorporate extra details resembling the metallicity of stars.

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**Extra resources for Dynamics of the Milky Way: Tidal Streams and Extended Distribution Functions for the Galactic Disc**

**Sample text**

Varghese et al. (2011) correct the orbit track of the progenitor by releasing stars at pericentric passage assuming some model for the progenitor. This approach can rapidly generate stream models but relies on strong modelling assumptions. Similarly, Küpper et al. (2012) use a streak-line method for constructing streams by continually releasing particles from the progenitor at the tidal radius. This approach has been used to constrain properties of the Via Lactea II simulation from its constituent streams by Bonaca et al.

1) × 10−2 rad. Errors as a function of angle: It is informative to investigate how the errors in the derived actions and angles vary with true angle around the torus. The derived actions are approximately independent of the true angles as they depend only on 32 2 Angle-Action Estimation in a General Axisymmetric Potential Fig. 5 RMS error in the angles binned as a function of angle for the torus in Sect. 1. The dashed line shows the total RMS error from all the points on the torus. For the bottom panel, we have taken advantage of the symmetry in the z = 0 plane and mapped the θz = (0, 2π) interval onto θz = (0, π) such that θz = π/2 corresponds to ±z max etc.

4. We can see that R and z are periodic in the angles. We define the zero-point of θ R such that the radial periapsis and apoapsis correspond to θ R = 0 and θ R = π respectively. θz is defined such that z = 0 corresponds to θz = 0, π and z = ±z max corresponds to θz = π/2, 3π/2. The zero-point of θφ is defined such that θφ = φ at periapsis. The spread of the z coordinates of the points at a given angle is much larger than the spread in the R coordinates. 2 %. We also find that there is a very tight anticorrelation between J R and Jz .