By edited by F. Pacheco-Torgal ... [et al.].
Environmental effect of Portland cement creation --
Lower binder depth eco-efficient concretes --
Life cycle evaluation (LCA) points of concrete --
Natural pozzolans in eco-efficient concrete --
Artificial pozzolans in eco-efficient concrete --
Tests to judge pozzolanic task in eco-efficient concrete --
Properties of concrete with high-volume pozzolans --
Influence of supplementary cementitious fabrics (SCMs) on concrete longevity --
Performance of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with high-volume supplementary cementitious fabrics (SCMs) --
High-volume flooring granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) concrete --
Recycled glass concrete --
Municipal good waste incinerator (MSWI) concrete --
Concrete with polymeric wastes --
Concrete with building and demolition wastes (CDW) --
An eco-efficient method of concrete carbonation --
Concrete with polymers --
Alkali-activated established concrete --
Sulfoaluminate cement --
Reactive magnesia cement --
Nanotechnology for eco-efficient concrete --
Biotechconcrete : an cutting edge strategy for concrete with stronger toughness.
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Extra resources for Eco-efficient concrete
On the local scale, attention should be paid to the chromium content of cement. For instance, the sale of cement containing more than 2 ppm of soluble Cr(VI) when hydrated is prohibited by European Directive 2003/53/EC (European Union, 2003). Hexavalent chromium or Cr(VI) is not stable. When dissolved, Cr(VI) can penetrate the unprotected skin and be transformed into to Cr(III) which combines with epidermal proteins to form the allergen to which some people are sensitive. The Cr(VI) content can originate from (i) raw materials and fuel entering the system, (ii) magnesia–chrome refractory blocks, (iii) wear metal from crushers containing chromium alloys and (iv) additions of gypsum, pozzolans, ground granulated BFS, mineral components, CKD and set regulators (Hills and Johansen, 2007).
2. So, a world FA production decrease is only a matter of time. Allocation of CO2 to fly ash is also under discussion (Chen et al. 2 t of CO2 are released into the atmosphere (Yamamoto et al. 1997). Again, except for technical or localized reasons, there seems to be no need to promote the use of higher amounts of pozzolans in cement mixtures. Fly ash must also be considered a scarce material. 4 The need for additional supplementary cementitious materials In considering the relative scarcity of traditional supplementary cementitious materials, the development of new supplementary materials becomes a © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013 Lower binder intensity eco-efficient concretes 9000 8000 Annual production (Mt) 7000 6000 5000 31 S.
Threshold limits for trace elements in Portland cement clinker. Cement and Concrete Research, 41, 1177–1184. , Costa U. 2007 Influence of alkalis and sulphates on the mineralogical composition of clinker, 12th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, Montreal, 20078 M3-01-1. , Guo S. 2007. Effect of phosphorus on the formation of alite rich Portland clinker. 12th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, Montreal, 20078 M3-01-3. , Roussel N. 2010. Cement production technology improvement compared to factor 4 objectives.