By Gennady Zaikov, Lomakin
The unfavorable environmental influence of a few commercial flame retardants containing halogens, heavy metals, and so forth. has kindled the research into new possibilities of polymer flame retardation to be able to ecological defense. This new identify bargains with the ecological elements of polymer flame retardation. The booklet opens with an advent, describing the ecological main issue of flame retardation functions. this can be through a few basic suggestions of polymer combustion. next chapters take care of crucial equipment for estimating polymer flammability, the mode of motion of recent flame retardants, ecological matters of the main used halogenated flame retardants. the ultimate bankruptcy includes feedback for and stories of latest, ecologically pleasant varieties of flame retardants, comparable to low melting glass platforms, polymer nanocomposites, polymer blends, natural char formers, and silicon-inorganic platforms.
desk of Contents
1. a few recommendations of Polymer Combustion
2. normal tools for checking out of Polymer fabrics Flammability
three. Polymer Flame Retardants
five. New sorts of Ecologically pleasant Flame Retardants
Read or Download Ecological Aspects of Polymer Flame Retardancy PDF
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Additional info for Ecological Aspects of Polymer Flame Retardancy
If the specimen melts or causes flaming drips, this is likely to affect the flame spread in a way that is uneven; the test method simply requires that such events be reported. Moreover, if flame spread is very rapid, the flame spread is potentially lost unless recording is continuous. This apparatus is often referred to as the radiant panel, and results from this test are frequently required in regulations and specifications and quoted in data sheets. ASTM D3675 uses the same apparatus as ASTM E162, but is designed for use with flexible cellular materials only, up to a maximum thickness of 25 mm.
Incorporation of a compound that will redirect the decomposition and combustion reactions toward reduced heat of combustion. Phosphorus compounds appear effective in this approach, in favoring the formation of carbonaceous char rather than carbon containing combustible gases, and in inhibiting glowing oxidation of the char. One gram-mol of carbon produces 26,400 calories of heat in burning to carbon monoxide and 94,000 calories of heat in burning to carbon dioxide; this heat is not produced if carbon is kept in the form of char.
Measurements are made at intervals not exceeding 5 s, and other fire-test response characteristics are assessed simultaneously with heat release, including smoke release rate, mass loss and ignitability. The heat evolution factor in ASTM E162 is relative measure of heat release. It is calculated as the product of the maximum temperature measured in the stack and some apparatus - dependent constants. 5. Smoke tests Smoke is measured in ASTM E662 (or NFPA 258), E906 ( or NFPA 263) and E1354 (or NFPA 264) and in the international standard IS0 5659, Part 2.