By Richard C. Johnson
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Extra resources for Effects of Upland Afforestation on Water Resources: The Balquhidder Experiment, 1981-1991
This analysis is described in more detail in Gustard and Wesselink (1993). The measured and simulated daily flow series were analysed using procedures described in the Low Flow Studies report (Institute of Hydrology, 1980) for deriving flow duration curves and annual minimum series and by Brown (1991) for deriving storage-yield relationships. Table 19 summarises the low flow statistics derived from the observed and simulated data. The mean flow was determined from the simulated flow records 1964-88 (Table 20) for various proportions of forest.
There is clear evidence from Table 23 and the double mass curve of monthly streamflow and sediment load (Figure 36) that sediment loads in both catchments have increased since 1986. The increase is much greater for the forested Kirkton catchment (2782 t) than for the moorland Monachyle (640 t). However, not all of the increase should be attributed to forestry: annual precipitation has also increased since 1986. Figure 35 shows the mean SSC in specific flow ranges, group averages, for the two periods before and after the land uses changed.
C00100 -' y ' ______ Daynumber in Monachyle and overestimat- -underestimating ing in Kirkton, appears to be systematic. Application of the annual model produced similar departures from the observed (P-Q) values. 4. 1) required a deep soil: this is not typical in the catchments and a vegetation stress factor should probably be incorporated into the grass model. However, the fact that most summers during the measurement period have been wet suggests that such a factor could be small. Other important sources of uncertainty are total evaporation losses from bilberry and mesomires and evaporation from snow cover on rough moorland vegetation.