By Richard E. Brown
Because of its excessive impression at the expense of electrical energy and its direct correlation with buyer pride, distribution reliability remains to be probably the most vital subject matters within the electrical energy undefined. carrying on with within the detailed culture of the bestselling first variation, electrical energy Distribution Reliability, moment version consolidates all pertinent issues on electrical energy distribution into one finished quantity balancing conception, useful wisdom, and genuine international functions.
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If voltage is reduced by a certain percentage, these loads will increase their current by an equal percentage to keep current times voltage constant. Increased current causes motors to heat up and may eventually result in equipment failure. Since distribution system capacity is almost always limited by equipment ampacity, voltage reduction does not necessarily improve distribution reliability. When voltage is reduced, constant impedance loads draw proportionally less current and constant power loads draw proportionally more current.
1 POWER QUALITY, RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY "Power quality" is an ambiguous term that means many things to many people. From a customer perspective, a power quality problem might be defined as any electric supply condition that causes appliances to malfunction or prevents their use. From a utility perspective, a power quality problem might be perceived as noncompliance with various standards such as RMS voltage or harmonics. In fact, power is equal to the instantaneous product of current and voltage and formulating a meaningful definition of power quality is problematic.
Public concern over aesthetics often drives the 22 Chapter 1 decision to build underground systems, and laws and statutes mandating underground construction are becoming common. A brief description of major underground feeder components is now provided. Riser Poles — poles that transition overhead wire to underground cable. Wire will typically terminate at a pothead, transition to cable and be routed down the riser pole in conduit. Cable — wires covered with a dielectric insulation characterized by voltage rating, current rating and material.