Electron Crystallography: Novel Approaches for Structure by Thomas E. Weirich, János L. Lábár, Xiaodong Zou

By Thomas E. Weirich, János L. Lábár, Xiaodong Zou

Over the past decade we've got witnessed a number of intriguing achievements in electron crystallography. those contain structural and cost density stories on natural molecules complex inorganic and steel fabrics within the amorphous, nano-, meso- and quasi-crystalline nation and in addition improvement of latest software program, tailored for the specific wishes of electron crystallography. additionally, those advancements were followed by way of a now to be had new iteration of computing device managed electron microscopes built with high-coherent field-emission assets, cryo-specimen holders, ultra-fast CCD cameras, imaging plates, strength filters or even correctors for electron optical distortions. hence, quick and semi-automatic facts acquisition from small pattern parts, just like what we this day be aware of from imaging plates diffraction structures in X-ray crystallography, could be anticipated for the very close to destiny. This development sincerely exhibits that the contribution of electron crystallography is sort of precise, because it permits to bare the intimate constitution of samples with excessive accuracy yet on a lot smaller samples than have ever been investigated via X-ray diffraction. As a tribute to those great contemporary achievements, this NATO complicated examine Institute used to be dedicated to the unconventional methods of electron crystallography for constitution choice of nanosized fabrics.

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Additional info for Electron Crystallography: Novel Approaches for Structure Determination of Nanosized Materials (NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry)

Sample text

Further, it is seen that the strength of HRTEM lies in the detection of light atoms28, 47, 61 as demonstrated in Figure 3 where the Exploiting Sub-Ångstrom Abilities: 27 Figure 7. Left: Schematized Argand plot for microscopes of different sensitivity. Right: Sensitivity estimation for STEM (bottom curve) and HRTEM (top curve). intensity on the oxygen columns is generated by only 10+1 oxygen atoms. On the other hand STEM discriminates better between heavy elements in a light matrix60 but at a smaller signal to noise ratio that imposes a detection limit around Z=40.

The essence of the direct-methods algorithm is this: the sum of the phases of any three reflections taken around a closed loop in reciprocal space is independent of origin, and is probably zero, for both centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric crystals. Since one may choose several phases at will to fix the origin, it therefore becomes possible to iteratively determine all phases, and this is done using the tangent formula. (The number of originfixing phases depends on the space group and dimensionality - for tables, see [11]).

Since one may choose several phases at will to fix the origin, it therefore becomes possible to iteratively determine all phases, and this is done using the tangent formula. (The number of originfixing phases depends on the space group and dimensionality - for tables, see [11]). In practice it is found that one needs about 8 strong reflections per inequivalent unknown atom-position to use the programs. Note that the values of the phases are more important in fixing atom positions than the structure factor magnitudes - errors in the magnitudes due to multiple scattering will mainly broaden the Cochran distribution, which gives the probability of a zero sum for the triplet.

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