Electron Micrographs of Clay Minerals by Toshio Sudo

By Toshio Sudo

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AABAAB. . , ABBABB. . in g = 2) can be regarded as being structures of single crysyals. Several interstratified minerals described as being of “regular type” have received individual mineral names. Even so, based on detailed analysis of the status accorded to the interstratified structure, it is also advantageous to consider the completely regular type as being a limiting case. The regular type reported so far is commonly regarded to be 1 : 1 regular type having component layers in equal proportion.

In some instances, cation ordering results in the formation of superlattices. The above examples concerned the cation ordering occurring within a homogeneous single Fig. 16 nlustrations of tetrahedral and octahedral distortions. (A) Distorted features of the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets in the dickite structure (Newnhamand Brindley, 1956). The octahedra having vacant sites occur with larger dimensions compared to the octahedra having occupied sites. (B) Octahedral ordering pattern of zinnwaldite-lM in sub-group C2 (Guggenheim and Bailey, 1977).

The distortions of layers revealed by refinement of the crystal structures often lead to the conclusion that layer displacements denoted by definite amounts such as a0/3 or bo/3 are no more than approximate values. Refinement of the structure of kaolinite revealed a departure of the layer structure from the ideal geometry (Brindley and Nakahira, 1958). 5' which would be expected from an exact displacement of -a0/3. , 1954) is regarded to be a typical b-axis disordered kaolinite. 5") also does not correspond exactly with displacements of -a0/3.

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