Electron microprobe analysis and scanning electron by S. J. B. Reed

By S. J. B. Reed

Initially released in 2005, this e-book covers the heavily comparable suggestions of electron microprobe research (EMPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) particularly from a geological standpoint. issues mentioned comprise: ideas of electron-target interactions, electron beam instrumentation, X-ray spectrometry, normal rules of SEM photograph formation, construction of X-ray 'maps' displaying elemental distributions, approaches for qualitative and quantitative X-ray research (both energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive), using either 'true' electron microprobes and SEMs geared up with X-ray spectrometers, and useful concerns similar to pattern practise and therapy of effects. all through, there's an emphasis on geological features now not pointed out in comparable books aimed toward a extra normal readership. The publication avoids pointless technical aspect so that it will be simply available, and kinds a entire textual content on EMPA and SEM for geological postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers, in addition to these operating in business laboratories.

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1. SEM images of an electron microscope grid (3 mm diameter); magnification (a) 10 and (b) 10 000. Resolution, defined as the size of the smallest detail clearly visible in the image, is limited not only by the diameter of the electron beam but also by the interaction between the electrons and the specimen. 4, and can be reduced to a few nanometres in principle. In many applications, however, the ultimate resolution is not needed and a larger beam diameter can be used, with the advantage that more current is then available.

For scanning large areas, stage movement rather than beam deflection can be used. However, owing to the relatively slow speed of the mechanical stage movements, this entails a long acquisition time, which is appropriate for X-ray ‘maps’ used to show element distributions, but less so for electron images. 8 The specimen stage Specimens for SEM are commonly fixed to a ‘stub’ consisting of a metal disc with a projecting peg (Fig. 10). This is mounted on the stage mechanism, which incorporates linear movements in the x and y directions (perpendicular to the column axis), enabling different areas of the specimen to be imaged and/or analysed, and in the z direction (parallel to the axis), which serves to locate the surface of the specimen at the required height relative to the final electron lens (also light microscope and X-ray spectrometers, if fitted).

Also, it decreases with decreasing focal length, and for high-resolution SEM imaging may therefore be minimised by decreasing the ‘working distance’ 26 Instrumentation Fig. 6. Spherical aberration: the lens focusses outer rays more strongly than those close to the axis, resulting in enlargement of the beam diameter at the focus. Fig. 7. The appearance of the electron beam in a through-focus series: (a) with and (b) without astigmatism (this behaviour can be observed on a cathodoluminescent sample).

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