Electron Microscopy in Mineralogy by H.-R. Wenk (auth.), H.-R. Wenk (eds.)

By H.-R. Wenk (auth.), H.-R. Wenk (eds.)

During the final 5 years transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has additional a number of very important new facts to mineralogy and has significantly replaced its outlook. this is often partially due to the fact metallurgists and crystal physicists­ having solved lots of the structural and crystallographic difficulties in metals­ have started to teach a widening curiosity within the even more complex constructions of minerals, and partially to fresh development in experimental ideas, typically the provision of ion-thinning units. whereas electron microscopists became more and more attracted to minerals (judging from unique symposia at contemporary conferences resembling 5th eu Congress on Electron microscopy, guy­ chester 1972; 8 overseas Congress on Electron Microscopy, Canberra 1974) mineralogists have learned merits of the recent process and utilized it with expanding frequency. which will coordinate the turning out to be volume of study, electron microscopy periods were integrated in conferences of mineralogists (e. g. Geological Society of the United States, Minneapolis, 1972, American Crystallographic organization, Berkeley, 1974). The large reaction for the TEM symposium which H. -R. Wenk and G. Thomas prepared on the Berkeley convention of the yank Crystallographic organization shaped the root for this booklet. It seemed helpful at this degree to summarize the achievements of electron microscopy, scattered in lots of varied journals in different various fields and current them to mineralogists. a bunch of contributors because the Berkeley symposium shaped an article Committee and defined the content material of this book.

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The configuration of all the others follow from the character of their boundaries, in a self-consistent manner. , 1973). 14e and f were taken with the diffraction conditions shown in Fig. 14g, and illustrate this method of analysis. The fringes in Fig. 14e running from right to left are thickness fringes. They remain continuous across the boundaries in the bright field picture. In dark field, however (Fig. g. g. at j and g). Comparison with Fig. 14a shows that the latter are translation boundaries, whereas the former are inversion boundaries.

2 Thickness Fringes In an analogous way, for a constant angle of incidence, the intensity of the diffracted and transmitted beam will vary periodically with thickness. The period to = l/s is called the kinematic extinction distance. The resulting contours (loci of constant t) are called thickness fringes. 2 Dynamical Theory The kinematical theory of electron diffraction breaks down near the exact Bragg condition (s ~ 0) and for thick foils. These two conditions usually prevail in routine electron microscopy work.

For partial dislocations, g. b can take non-integral values and some complexities arise due to dynamical effects. In the fcc structure especially when anisotropy is considered it has been shown that whereas g. b = ±1 is always an invisibility criterion, the case for g . b= leads to visibility or invisibility depending on the sign of s and the position in the foil (thickness dependence). These difficulties have been discussed by Clarebrough (1971). The Burgers vector of a partial dislocation is restricted by the displacement vector of the fault that it confines and this will aid in its determination.

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