Elements of International Economics by Professor Dr. Giancarlo Gandolfo (auth.)

By Professor Dr. Giancarlo Gandolfo (auth.)

Modern economies develop into increasingly more open and the exterior area of an financial system turns into progressively more very important. This textbook goals at make clear­ ing how an open financial system features, specifically at explaining the determi­ nants of foreign fiows of commodities and fiscal resources. It additionally goals at interpreting the results of those fiows at the family and foreign econ­ omy and the prospective coverage acti.ons on the nationwide and foreign point. specific recognition could be paid to the issues of foreign financial at either the economic and fiscal point. integration scholars may be capable of learn and interpret the stability of funds of a rustic, comparing many of the forms of stability, to give an explanation for the behaviour of industrial fiows within the gentle of the theories studied, to research fiows of economic resources based on interest-rate differentials and different components, to review the forces that make sure trade premiums and reason forex crises, to appreciate the explanations in the back of overseas financial integration akin to the eu Union, to guage the consequences of nationwide and overseas policies.

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The other extreme is given by rigidly fixed exchange rates. Here various cases are to be distinguished. The first and oldest is the gold standard, where each national currency has a precisely fixed gold content (for our purposes it is irrelevant whether gold materially circulates in the form of gold coins or whether circulation is made of paper currency which can be immediately converted into gold on demand). In this case the exchange rate between any two currencies is automatically and rigidly fixed by the ratio between the gold content of the two currencies (which is called the mint parity).

As we are considering foreign exchange, to hedge means to have an exact balance between liabilities and assets in foreign currency (of course, this exact balance must hold for each foreign currency separately considered), that is, in financial jargon, to have no open position in foreign exchange, neither a lang position (more assets than liabilities in foreign currency) nor a shart position (more liabilities than assets in foreign eurrency). A particular case of a zero net position in foreign exchange is, of course, to have zero assets and zero liabilities.

If, on the other hand, the United States brought their balance of payments into equilibrium, the international monetary system would suffer from a liquidity shortage, with the possible collapse of international trade. Hence the dilemma: if the US allow the increase in international liquidity through deficits in their balance of payments, the international monetary system is bound to collapse for a confidence crisis; if, on the other hand, they do not allow such an increase, the world is condemned to deflation.

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