Emulsion-based Free-Radical Retrograde-Precipitation by Gerard Caneba

By Gerard Caneba

This monograph is a follow-up fabric to the 1st FRRPP ebook by way of Gerard Caneba in 2009. It comprises extra conceptual effects, implementation of the FRRPP procedure in emulsion media to supply numerous block copolymers, and different FRRPP-related supplementary subject matters. Conceptual issues contain the applying of the quantitative research provided within the first FRRPP monograph for the incidence of the FRRPP method to the polysterene-styrene-ether (PS-S-Ether) and poly(methacrylic acid)-methacrylic acid-water (PMAA-MAA-Water) structures, in addition to extensions via unsteady country research of the incidence of flat temperature profiles. additionally, the generalization of the quantitative research is finished to think about molecular weight results, specifically in accordance with alterations of the section envelope to an hourglass style. subject matters in implementation of the FRRPP strategy from pre-emulsions of monomers and the solvent/precipitant are highlighted. extra FRRPP themes are incorporated during this monograph that pertain to newer efforts of Gerard Caneba, comparable to oil spill keep watch over, oil dispersant approach, and caustic sludge remediation from emulsion-based FRRPP fabrics, hydrolysis of vinyl acetate-acrylic acid-based copolymers, and different polymer amendment experiences from FRRPP-based emulsions.

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11), J/(mol K) Polymer radical fraction, dimensionless Heat of polymerization, J/mol Defined in Eq. 14) Propagation rate coefficient, l/(mol s) Molecular weight, Daltons or g/mol Monomer concentration, mol/l Initial monomer concentration, mol/l Density, g/cm3 or kg/m3 Particle radius, cm or m Polymer radical concentration, mol/l Initial polymer radical concentration, mol/l Initial temperature, K Reference Caneba GT (2010) Free-radical retrograde-precipitation polymerization (FRRPP): novel concept, processes, materials, and energy aspects.

When the polymer-rich phase is formed at a copolymer composition CP1, domain temperatures increase in the system and finds the spinodal at the copolymer composition CP2. This goes on until Monomer 1 is used up and the system finds the spinodal at a relatively high temperature at the composition P2 (Point B). The net result is at least a tapered block copolymer of Monomer 1 on one end and Monomer 2 on the other end of the copolymer chain. It should be noted that the copolymer spinodals are depicted as hourglass shaped in Fig.

Differences in PDI values can also be explained by the closeness of binodal curves at higher molecular weights. This can be seen from the phase diagrams for both the PS–S–Ether and PMAA–MAA–Water systems (Caneba 2010), and from various other types of phase equilibria data of polymer solutions. The case of the PMAA–MAA–Water system illustrates that flatness of temperature profiles within reacting particles does not necessarily result in less broad MWDs, if molecular weights are relatively large.

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