Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Biomedical

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Schopf and G. ~L--C. ~---SiMe3 Spiro-fused thiophene trimer (a) and spiro-fused thiophene heptamer (see also Sect. 1) (b) [28, 29] Polythiophenes ElectricallyConductive Polymers S ~ ~ 31 S S S n S -- -- n n Polymers of dithieno[3,4-b;3',4'-d]thiophene [4, 3~32] Poly(phenanthro[9,10-c]thiophene-2,11-diylidyne) (see also Sect. 3) [-33] Poly(naptho [2,3-c]thiophene-2,9-diyl-2,2'-bithiophene-5,5'-diyl) [-34] Poly(thieno [3,4-c] thiophene-2,6-diylidynemet hylidene-2,2'-bithiophene- 5,5'diylmethylidene) [-35] R R Polymers of 4,4-dialkylcyclopenta[-2,1-b;3,4-b']bithiophene n = 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 16) [,11, 36, 37] s} (o) (R=CnH2n+I, 5 (b) Polymers of 4-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']bithiophene (a) and of 7-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-TH-cyclopenta[1,2-b;3,4-b']bithiophene (b) [38] 32 G.

Schopf and G. KoBmehl Table 6. Continued Key words Section in this review Ref. 7 524, 681 577 70 146, 148 615 524 340, 495 333 Contin. Polythiophenes 21 Electrically Conductive Polymers Table 6. Continued Key words Section in this review Ref. 1 89 Poly(3',4'-dihexyl-2,2';5',2"-terthiophene) Poly(4,4"-dipentoxy-2,2';5',2"-terthiophene) Poly(3,3"-dipentoxy-2,2';5',2"-terthiophene) Poly(2,2';5',2"; 5",2'"-tetrathiophene-5,5'"-diyl) Poly(tetrathiophene) ~N Poly(3,3 '"-dimethyl-2,2';5',2"; 5",2" '-tetrathiophene) Table 7.

The dibutoxy substitution yields advantages in processing, as the high molecular weight polymer dissolves easily in common organic solvents [106, 107]. 3 Poly(thiophene)s with Pendant Reactive Groups 3-Methylthiophene and 3-butylthiophene can be electrocopolymerized with 3-thienylacetic acid and its methyl ester [108-110] (cf. Table 8). The COOH group is covalently bound to the copolymer structure: the carboxylic group does not take part in the electrochemical reaction. The dimerization tendency of carboxylic acids is possibly reduced by the electrolytic conditions (cf.

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