By Johannes Unger
This e-book analyzes the most difficulties within the real-time keep watch over of parallel hybrid electrical powertrains in non-road functions that paintings in non-stop excessive dynamic operation. It additionally offers functional insights into maximizing the power potency and drivability of such powertrains.
It introduces an energy-management regulate constitution, which considers the entire actual powertrain constraints and makes use of novel methodologies to foretell the long run load necessities to optimize the controller output when it comes to the complete paintings cycle of a non-road motor vehicle. the burden prediction features a technique for non permanent rather a lot in addition to cycle detection method for a complete load cycle. during this manner, the power potency should be maximized, and gasoline intake and exhaust emissions concurrently reduced.
Readers achieve deep insights into the subjects that have to be thought of in designing an strength and battery administration procedure for non-road cars. It additionally turns into transparent that just a mix of administration platforms can considerably bring up the functionality of a controller.
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Extra info for Energy Efficient Non-Road Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Advanced Modeling and Control
4 Detailed enlargement of the marked region in Fig. 3 including the current constraints applied in the optimization obtained optimal excitation signal with the recorded voltage response of battery cell B. The current signal and current constraints are depicted in Subplot two, where currents with more than 100 A can be observed. 5C. Nevertheless, the corresponding voltage responses for the two depicted temperatures (see Subplot one) and the SoC (see Subplot three) keep the constraints. Note that even though the constraints of voltage and SoC are indirectly considered, any constraints are met, and the entire relevant range of the SoC is covered.
3 already includes the SoC as input variable, in order to be able to use the identified parameter for the augmented state variable in the design of the linear Kalman filters. Using these parameters, the state matrix Ai can be established by ⎡ a1,i ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎢ Ai = ⎢ 0 ⎢ .. ⎣ . 0 a2,i 0 1 .. 0 ... ... . an,i 0 0 .. 0 ⎤ bSoC,i 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ .. ⎥ . 36) 40 2 Battery Management and the input matrix Bi follows by ⎡ b21,i ⎢ 0 ⎢ Bi = ⎢ .. ⎣ . ts,bms Q c,batt ··· 0 .. blm l ,i 0 .. ... 0 .. bqm q ,i 0 ..
Magnus and Neudecker 1988) d J D (Ψ ) = 2J D (Ψ )Ψ [Ψ T Ψ ]−1 . 18) dΨ T Note that the inversion of the FIM appears in Eq. 18), due to which the FIM is required to be a regular matrix with full rank (Hametner et al. 2013b). The second term in Eq. 17) is obtained by the single derivatives of the parameter sensitivity vectors with respect to the model input, which are based on the derivative of the regressor ϕ(k, θ ) as defined in Eq. 1) with respect to the input U (r ). Denoting the derivative of ϕ(k, θ ) by d yˆ (k − n, θ) d yˆ (k − 1, θ) dϕ T (k, θ) = ...