By T.J.M. Kennie, G. Petrie
This paintings examines the foremost adjustments within the know-how now used for the size and processing of topographic and non-topographic spatial facts, with emphasis at the new and rising know-how and its applications.
summary: This paintings examines the most important adjustments within the expertise now used for the dimension and processing of topographic and non-topographic spatial information, with emphasis at the new and rising expertise and its functions
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Additional resources for Engineering Surveying Technology
The bundle technique is a computational method which is used in photogrammetry to simultaneously solve for the positions of unknown ground points and camera orientations using measured x and y photographic coordinates of known control points and unknown ground points. The method rigorously accommodates redundant data and provides a full error analysis. The application of the method to close-range photogrammetry is discussed in Chapter 8. In order to utilize the bundle adjustment method in this context, it is currently necessary to transform angular measurements obtained from an electronic theodolite into equivalent photographic observations.
12 Schwendener baseline design and inter-pillar distances (Schwendener, 1972). 13 (a) Typical pillar design for multi-point baseline; (b) Wild centring system. Courtesy Paisley College. standard error of a single measured distance and the zero error. An indication of any cyclic errors can be obtained by plotting the residuals (most probable values of the distances— observed values) as a function of the unit metres and fractions of a metre of the individual measured distances (Fig. 14). Although the method provides useful results, it should be noted that the cyclic error curve illustrates not only the effect of cyclic errors, but also the influence of random observational errors.
References Allan, A. (1987) The principles of theodolite intersection systems. Proc. , September 2–4, London, 16–31. Ashkenazi, V. (1986) Satellite geodesy—its impact on engineering surveying. Proc. 18th FIG Congress, Toronto, Paper 502/1, 70–85. Ashkenazi, V. and Dodson, A. (1975) The Nottingham multi-pillar baseline. Proc. 16th UGG General Assembly, Grenoble, 22 pp (also reprinted in Civil Engineering Surveyor, June 1977, 1–8. Bethel, J. and Sedej, J. (1986) Submarine hull mapping and fixture set out: an operation of the ECDS system.