Environmental Soil Chemistry by Donald L. Sparks

By Donald L. Sparks

Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates basic ideas of soil chemistry with recognize to environmental reactions among soils and different typical fabrics and heavy metals, insecticides, business contaminants, acid rain, and salts. well timed and entire discussions of functions to real-world environmental issues are a crucial concentration of this demonstrated textual content. <*> presents scholars with either sound modern education within the fundamentals of soil chemistry and purposes to real-world environmental issues <*> well timed and complete dialogue of significant strategies together with: sorption/desorption, oxidation-reduction of metals and organics, and results of acidic deposition and salinity on contaminant reacions <*> Boxed sections specialise in pattern difficulties and causes of key words and parameters <*> large tables on elemental composition of soils, rocks and sediments, pesticide periods, inorganic minerals, and strategies of decontaminating soils <*> basically written for all scholars and pros in environmental technology and environmental engineering in addition to soil technology

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SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION This technique involves the addition of an additive to excavated, contaminated soil so that the contaminants are encapsulated. The mixture is then landfilled. Thus, the contaminants are not free to move alone; however, they are not destroyed. This method has been employed to minimize inorganic pollutant contamination. 28 1 Environmental Soil Chemistry: An Overview CHEMICAL EXTRACTION In this treatment the excavated soil is mixed with a solvent, surfactant, or solvent/surfactant mixture to remove the contaminants.

1995). The Lytle detector, which is a solid angle, gas-filled ion chamber detector, is frequently used in fluorescence experiments. 18 shows the experimental apparatus for fluorescence XAS measurements using a Lytle detector. Samples are loaded into a mylar-windowed sample holder made of low Z materials (aluminum or Teflon). , 1995). 18. Schematic illustration of the experimental setup used for fluorescenceyield XAS measurements. From Wong (1986), with permission. (Fig. 19). Some species, such as Cr, yield remarkably different, easily recognizable XANES spectra (Fig.

1992). ” This definition includes nearly all kinds of industrial and consumer waste discharge—solid, semiliquid, and liquid. Hazardous waste is defined as “a solid waste, or combination of solid wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics may: (a) cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or (b) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed” (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 1976, Public Law 94-580).

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