By Henri Delanghe, Ugur Muldur, Luc Soete
This cutting edge e-book makes a speciality of an important thought underpinning present ecu Union (EU) examine coverage. It describes the background and idea of the eu learn region (ERA), analyses the various underlying assumptions, assesses a few of its achievements, and takes a quick examine its destiny. ''European technological know-how and know-how Policy'' bargains with the concept of the period, a coordinated and powerful eu learn zone, the profitable fulfillment of in an effort to develop into the most target of european study coverage as soon as the Lisbon Treaty enters into strength. The publication demonstrates that nearly ten years after the formal release of the period idea, little top-down development turns out to were made when it comes to attaining greater governance of the eu study panorama. besides the fact that, tangible bottom-up development has been made in the direction of harmonising examine past the present uncoordinated nationwide, inter-governmental and supranational coverage schemes. Given the present ongoing period debate, this well timed ebook could be a useful instrument for know-how and innovation policymakers and practitioners in Europe. it's going to additionally attract students and scholars within the fields of technological know-how, know-how and innovation.
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Extra resources for European Science and Technology Policy: Towards Integration or Fragmentation?
British industrial research and development before 1945', Economic History Review, 47 (2), 21 3--38. Gaudin, T. (1985), 'Definition of innovation policies', in: G. ), Innovation Policies: An International Perspective, London: Francis Pinter. Guzzetti, L. (1995), A Brief' History of European Union Resmrch Policy, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. King, A. (2001), 'Scientific concerns in an economic environment: science in OEEC-OECD', Technology in Society, 23 (3), 33743.
The growth of the number of areas was the result of another imbalance, which had to do with the goals of the Community. The Euratom Treaty and the ECSC Treaty had very specific objectives for their R&D component. When research and technological development (RTD) was incorporated into the EEC Treaty through the Single European Act of 1986, reference was made to industrial competitiveness only. As Community responsibilities and activities grew formally and in practice, a sometimes heated discussion flared up as to where the boundaries lay for the FPs, which resulted in the explicit recognition in the Maastricht Treaty of 1992 that RTD could also target all other Community responsibilities and objectives.
The traditional French focus on large programmes, often built around large firms, such as the 'Plan Calcul' for the computer industry. has largely disappeared as well and like everywhere else, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) now play a considerably larger role in innovation and research policy. Indeed, because of the erosion of the concept of national champions, let alone nationalized companies, interventionist French industrial policy has largely disappeared. The Gvandes ~ c o l e snowadays perform high-quality research and in addition to the Paris region, several regional concentrations of research and innovation have developed, wellknown examples being Grenoble and Sophia Antipolis.