Expats and the Labor Force: Expats and the Labor Force by George Naufal, Ismail Genc (auth.)

By George Naufal, Ismail Genc (auth.)

An research into the hard work strength within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations essentially targeting hard work migration and remittances. The GCC nations have the top percentage of international hard work on the planet. The authors learn the multidimensional elements of one of these huge overseas population.

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18 E x pat s a n d t h e L a b or Forc e While many in the West know the region through the daily news coverage, the number of conflicts is still overwhelming when listed. This tangible observation has also been made in Held and Cummings (2010, 3). 2 A List of Selected Conflicts in MENA Region after 1945 # Conflict 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Israeli-Palestinian Arab-Israeli July 23 Revolution—Egypt Algerian War 1958 Crisis—Lebanon July 14 Revolution—Iraq Kurdish-Iraqi War North Yemen Civil War Six-Day War Jordan-Palestinian: Black September Yom Kippur War Lebanon Civil War Hama Massacre—Syria Iranian Revolution Iran-Iraq War Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait Operation Desert Storm Shia Uprisings in Iraq Algeria Civil War Muslim Brotherhood Suppression—Egypt Iraqi-Kurdish War Yemen Civil War US Invasion of Iraq Fatah-Hamas Conflict Israel-Lebanon War Israel-Gaza War January 25 Revolution—Egypt January 27 Uprising—Yemen Libya Civil War Syria Civil War 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Year Deaths (Estimates) 1947 1948 1952 1954–1962 1958 1958–1959 1961–1970 1962–1970 1967 1970–1971 13,000–18,900 51,000–91,000 1,000 178,600 1,300–2,000 4,000 100,000–105,000 100,000–150,000 11,700–23,500 3,400–10,000 1973 1975–1990 1976–1982 1978–1979 1980–1988 1990 1990–1991 1991 1991–2002 1992–2000 10,521–21,300 150,000–170,000 40,000 7,500–80,000 1,000,000 1,000 40,000–57,000 60,000–150,000 150,000–200,000 1,300–2,000 1994–1997 1994 2003–2010 2006 2006 2008 2011–2012 5,000 7,000–10,000 110,600–601,067 200–600 1,900 1,430 Ongoing 2011–2012 2011–2012 2011–2012 Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Source: The source for the death estimates is each conflict’s page on Wikipedia.

In other words, foreign workers in the Gulf live there on a temporary basis and have to eventually leave the region, although some of them end up staying for several decades. The term “migrant” does not therefore capture the true dynamics of the flow of people to the GCC countries. These foreign workers are known as “expatriates” or “expats,” which explains the title of this book. 8 Before moving to the Gulf, foreign workers have to secure a job that is usually linked to a local sponsor or a kafeel.

This division was discussed in details by Elliott (2008) in a special report published in Time magazine. Elliott (2008) takes the case of Lebanon, suffering from internal conflict, and the UAE and Qatar, as emerging economies and centers for the new Middle East. 18 Social Stability Furthermore, the GCC populations have been historically relatively homogenous, allowing for social stability relative to other MENA countries. The main religion in the Gulf is Islam, in which the two largest branches are Sunnis and Shias.

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