By M.S. Paterson
The first goal of this monograph is to offer the present wisdom of brittle houses of rocks as made up our minds in laboratory experiments. The central facets of brittle habit are defined with distinctive awareness to the elemental actual facets. hence, the booklet offers an invaluable creation to the fundamentals of rock homes for engineering and earth technology purposes. moreover, it serves as a advisor for graduate scholars and non experts via providing the proper historical past fabric and the place it may be came upon. For the hot variation an additional bankruptcy has been extra, and nearly 1/2 the chapters were commonly revised and the others up-to-date.
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Extra resources for Experimental Rock Deformation — The Brittle Field
Inclination of shear fracture to compression axis for different inclinations of the cleavage plane to the compression axis in triaxial compression tests on slate at the confining pressures shown. Note that for small inclinations the shear fractures followed the cleavage. (After Donath, 1961) An orientation dependence of failure stress like that possessed by some anisotropic rocks can be simulated in confined compression tests on specimens of isotropic rock containing a sawcut or similar single plane of weakness (Jaeger, 1959; Handin and Stearns, 1964; Lane and Heck, 1964; More, quoted by Sirieys, 1966; Okusa, 1971).
16) is represented very roughly in practice by that of some rocks, for example, the shales of Figure 14c and d or the slate studied by Hoek (1964), but in general the development of shoulders is not as marked as predicted, and the strengths parallel to and normal to the foliation plane are not equal, as in the simple theory. Walsh and Brace (1964) discussed modification of the Griffith theory in which a distribution of the sizes of the long cracks is assumed which would lead to more general types of behaviour.
I> I» ::0 ~ ~. .... C/) P- ~ I» ~ I» (I> .... l ~ - 32 Experimental Studies on the Brittle Fracture Stress Strain rate also has a small but significant influence on the brittle fracture stress, as might be expected from the existence of the temperature effect. In triaxial tests on limestone and several igneous rocks at strain rates of 10- 1 S- 1 or less, Serdengecti and Boozer (1961), Brace and Martin (1968), and Stowe and Ainsworth (1972) found increases in fracture stress of around 10% for a 103-fo1d increase in strain rate, similar to the effect noted in uniaxial tests on a marble and a granite by Mogi (1959, 1962a).