From Coherent Tunneling to Relaxation: Dissipative Quantum by Alois Würger

By Alois Würger

From Coherent Tunneling to rest is a magnificent assessment of ten years of development in our knowing of interacting tunneling structures. The dielectric and elastic reaction of (111) off-center impurities in alkalide halides is investigated intimately and the coherent movement of an impurity pair is mentioned in view of lately saw rotary echoes. The low-temperature houses of illness crystals with an impurity focus larger than a hundred ppm are reviewed and the dipolar interplay is proven to force the cross-over to relaxational dynamics. This entire presentation of the speculation is illustrated by way of experimental information for lithium, cyanide, and hydroxyl impurities in a variety of host crystals. This monograph is a perfect reference booklet for scientists operating with illness crystals and glasses

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2, all allowed dipole transitions involve the same energy V ~ + A2. 41) which vanishes for zero asymmetry energy and takes opposite values in the states ax = +1. 31). ) Non-diagonal transitions with o- # ~r' involve the time-dependent part of ! the dipole moment. ~. 42) and the amplitudes for non-diagonal dipole transitions ( a x a y a , lPn#~ayaz ) = - q d rl V/~72 + A2 ex. 43), the absolute value of the total dipole moment is found to be IPl = qd. 36). ) factorizes with respect to the quantum numbers ax, ay, and ~rz.

Up to now we have assumed that the field vector F is parallel to one of the crystal axes. 69). A different situation is encountered when applying an external field pointing in an arbitrary direction, F = (Fx, Fy, Fz). , those satisfying hw = E ) will be oriented along each of the three axes and experience the respective field amplitudes Fx, Fy, and Fz. 69), these give rise to three different Rabi frequencies. ) The experiments discussed above were carried out on single crystals; changing the orientation of the electric field with respect to the crystal axes should permit us to observe a variation in the Rabi frequency, and a superposition of echoes with different frequencies for the general case.

Yet the treatment of the latter in Chap. 5 relies heavily on the two-state approximation for each impurity. Comparison with the results from perturbation theory for two interacting eight-state systems permits us to make an estimate of the validity of the two-state approximation. 2) by a double-well potential with localized states IL} and IR). 2) 52 4. 3) whose eigenstates 2-1/2(]L) ~: ]R)) are separated by the tunnel energy A0. 15) by a factor of 3. In order to adjust the results from the two-state approximation to those for the actual eight-state system, we are thus led to multiply the internal energy by a factor of 3.

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