Gemmology by P. G. Read (Auth.)

By P. G. Read (Auth.)

Following on from the author's ''Beginner's advisor to Gemmology'', this can be an increased advisor to the topic. The textual content heavily follows the syllabi for the Gemmological Association's initial and degree classes and is meant for college students learning for his or her Fellowship. recommendation is given on exam strategies and examples of commonplace questions are incorporated. The e-book also needs to function a reference advisor for gemmologists

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Its shape is determined by the chemical composition of the mineral and the forces of valency and bonding that were described in the previous chapter. Finally, if the two-dimensional plan profiles of all the unit cells of all the mineral crystals could be visualized, these would consist entirely of three-, four- and sixsided shapes. The reason for this is that these are the only possible profiles which can link together without leaving gaps in the crystal lattice. Such linking is not possible with a five-sided profile and is the reason why no five-fold axis of symmetry is mentioned later in this chapter in the section dealing with the elements of symmetry.

This type of bonding makes metals good conductors of both electricity and heat. While metals are good electrical conductors, the strong attachment of valence electrons to their atoms in other materials results in a very poor conduction of electricity. Materials of this kind are classed as electrical non-conductors or insulators, and are usually poor conductors of heat. The majority of diamonds are unique among minerals in this respect as they are virtually non-conductors of electricity and yet can conduct heat better than most metals.

011 u. When atoms combine together they form a new entity which is called a molecule. The molecule is the smallest part of a substance which can have a separate stable existence. Groups of molecules formed by the combination of different elements are called compounds. Even the atoms of an individual element often become more stable when they join together to form a molecule. For example, oxygen and hydrogen atoms are more stable when they join together in pairs, and these elements are termed diatomic ( 0 2 and H 2 ).

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