By Ioana Latu, Marianne Schmid Mast, Susanne Kaiser
Ladies convey extra emotion than males, yet do additionally they event extra emotion than males? Are feelings represented another way in males and women’s brains? What are the origins of gender adjustments in feelings - are we born diversified or is it socialization that renders us various? What are the results of gender transformations in emotion for normal overall healthiness, insomnia, melancholy, delinquent habit, and alexithymia? What are the main applicable methodologies for the empirical examine of gender modifications in emotional experiences?
within the present ebook, coordinated via The Swiss middle for Affective Sciences, those questions are responded through reviewing learn on normal emotional expression and event, but additionally on particular feelings and affective studies akin to disgrace, empathy, and impulsivity. we advise an interdisciplinary contribution to the sector of gender and feelings, with works authored via experts within the fields of psychology, neuroscience, psychiatry, economics, philosophy, and anthropology.
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Additional info for Gender and Emotion
H. ), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 3–24). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Stone, S. , Dembroski, T. , Costa, P. , & Machugall, J. M. (1990). Gender differences in cardiovascular activity. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 13, 137– 156. Stoney, C. , Davis, M. , & Matthews, K. A. (1987). Sex differences in physiological response to stress and in coronary heart disease: A causal link? Psychophysiology, 24, 127–131. Stroud, L. , Epel, E. S. (2002). Sex differences in stress responses: social rejection versus achievement stress.
2004). In contrast with the above approach, the biological perspective holds that gender differences in emotionality are fundamentally Gender and Emotion Expression, Experience, Physiology and Well-Being 31 based on biological differences between men and women (e. , hormonal influences could explain the more frequent crying in women). , 2001). In line with a biological view, women tend to report more fear in threatening situations, reflecting a feeling of inability to physically protect themselves if attacked (Gordon & Riger, 1991), whereas men report more emotional arousal than do women in presence of erotic stimuli (Murnen & Stockton, 1997).
In their meta-analysis, Cross and colleagues (2011) found that men showed higher sensation seeking, which may be regarded as one dimension of reward sensitivity. In contrast, women were consistently more punishment sensitive. Regarding effortful control, men reported slightly more deficits on questionnaire measures, but there were no significant gender differences in delay discounting tasks (where impulsivity is manifested in favoring a smaller but immediate reward over a bigger but delayed reward) or executive function tasks (where impulsivity is manifested in an inability to 46 RALPH E RICH SCHMIDT and MARTIAL VAN DER L INDEN inhibit motor responses, maintain attention, develop and execute a plan, or switch attention to a new set of properties of the environment).