General Training Air conditioning - Module 08 Metering

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Temperature charts for induction and constant temperature heating. Transaction of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 69, 227–236. D. (1980). Canned foods. Thermal processing and microbiology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. P. (1992). Heat transfer. : McGraw-Hill International Limited. B. (1996). Fundamentals of heat & mass transfer. USA: Wiley. B. (1999). Pulsed electric field processing effects on flavor compounds and microorganisms of orange juice. Journal of Food Chemistry, 65, 445–451.

R. (1980). Prediction of nutrient retention in thermally processed heat conduction food packaged in retortable pouches. Journal of Food Science, 45, 1513. E. (1986). Computer based retort control logic for on-line correction process deviations. Journal of Food Science, 51(2), 480–483. A. (1987). Numerical modeling of natural convection heating in canned liquid foods. Transaction of American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 30(5), 1542–1551. A. (1988). Numerically predicted transient temperature and velocity profiles during natural convection heating of canned liquid foods.

Free Convection When a fluid’s temperature changes, the resulting changes in density establish natural convection currents, which occur as a result of bulk movement of the fluid, such as the movement of liquid inside a can during sterilization. , 1975). The rate of convection heat transfer is governed by Newton’s law of cooling. 3) where Q is the rate of heat transfer (W), a is the surface area (m2 ), Ts is the surface temperature, Tbu is the bulk fluid temperature, and h s is the surface or film heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 K−1 ).

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