Geochemistry of Sedimentary Ore Deposits by J.B. Maynard

By J.B. Maynard

This booklet is an outgrowth of my curiosity within the chemistry of sedimentary rocks. In educating geochemistry, i noticed that the simplest examples for lots of chemical procedures are drawn from the learn of ore deposits. for that reason, we initiated a path on the collage of Cincinnati entitled "Sedimentary Ore Deposits," which serves because the ultimate region direction for either our sedimentary petrology and our ore deposits series, and this publication relies on that instructing event. due to my orientation, the remedy given is likely to be extra sedimentological than is generally present in books on ore deposits, yet i'm hoping that this proves to be a bonus. it is going to even be noticeable that i've got drawn seriously at the rules and methods of Robert Garrels. a few humans have helped with the construction of this e-book. i'm specifically thankful to my scholars and co-workers at Cincinnati and The Memorial collage of Newfoundland for ache via initial models in my classes. I fairly thank invoice Jenks, Malcolm Annis, and Dave powerful. For aid with box paintings I thank A. Hallam, R. Hiscott, J. Hudson, R. Kepferle, P. O'Kita, A. Robertson, C. Stone, and R. Stevens. i'm additionally deeply indebted to Bob Stevens for lots of hours of insightful discussion.

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Example text

Seasonal fluctuations in the rate of evaporation or the rate of supply of fresh seawater would explain the microbanding. , Brongersma-Sanders 1971). Then the minerals found would be a result of the amount of C originally deposited with the sediment (Fig. 2-12). Drever (1974, p. 1104) suggested that if there were an excess of FeH over available C, magnetite resulted; if they were about equal, Fe2 + silicates formed; and if C greatly predominated, siderite was produced. Primary hematite would have been preserved in shallow, well-oxygenated environments where all of the organic carbon was oxidized.

They are, in fact, rare, but it is not known whether this is a primary effect, or whether they have been preferentially removed by erosion. In a few places, casts of evaporite minerals have been found (Bell and lackson 1974, Badham and Stanworth 1977), so at least some evaporite deposition was taking place. In the second explanation, the deep oceans had an oxidation potential low enough to convert Fe3+ to Fe2+, but not so low as to allow the reduction of SOl- to H2S. However this requires a seemingly delicate balance of oxidation potential over the whole ocean.

4 """ I \ AMORPHOUSi-\ """ CHAMOSITE . 6 l '-... ""'-. 2 4 6 pH 8 10 12 Fig. 2-17. Eh-pH relations between charnosite and glauconite, suggesting that charnosite should be favored by lower pH. 2 and Al = 10- 68 ; Si = 10- 27 • has presented thorough paleoecological documentation of a Jurassic ironstone from Switzerland that formed at a depth of about 100 m. Conceivably, the important factor is the mineralogy of the parent detrital clays. , Hunter 1970, p. 118). A similar trend is commonly found for kaolinite-illite distribution (Parham 1966, Edzwald and O'Melia 1975, Gibbs 1977), suggesting that there may be a primary depositional control over the distribution of iron silicates that is unrelated to diagenetic conditions.

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