By George Hewitt
This moment variation of Georgian: A Learner's Grammar is a totally revised and up-to-date advisor to the attention-grabbing and most generally spoken language of the Caucasus.
Presenting the language within the kind of dialogues and interpreting passages, complete cognizance is given to script copy and popularity, pronunciation, lexis and person issues of grammar.
Key positive aspects include:
* highlighting of verbal roots all through * new and sundry routines for perform of verb types * use of the recent Georgian forex * examples of Georgian literature, either poetry and prose, and every with its personal self-contained vocabularyВ В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В * a reference part delivering a solution key, a Georgian-English thesaurus and an index of grammatical terms.
With a various and vast diversity of workout paintings, this re-creation offers a entire and punctiliously graded grammar of Georgian that has been winning over a couple of years of use within the classroom.
Read Online or Download Georgian: A Learner's Grammar PDF
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Extra info for Georgian: A Learner's Grammar
In the plural all nouns have their instrumental in -eb-it. The 3rd person personal and demonstrative pronouns have the instrumental forms: m-it, am-it, mag-it, im-it (the uncommon plurals are irregular: mat-it, ama-t-it, maga-t-it, ima-t-it). The non-human interrogative pronoun has r-it(i) with what?. The instrumental of the interrogative relating to people or the 1st and 2nd person personal pronouns is extremely rare – the relevant forms are: v-is-it, çem-it, ¡en-it, çven-it, tkven-it. Adjective agreement with the instrumental Vowel-ﬁnal adjectives do not alter at all.
Aren’t they going to town? g. rogora x-a-r? , sada x-a-r? ). Pronouns, possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns The 1st and 2nd person pronouns (sing. = I/me, you; pl. )) do not alter for case in the way that nouns and 3rd person pronouns do. The forms are: 1st person 2nd person Singular Plural me ¡en çven tkven Since Georgian verbs agree with subjects (and direct objects, and indirect objects), personal pronouns such as these are regularly used only for purposes of stress or style. 18 Georgian: A Learner’s Grammar Possessive adjectives (my, your, our) are formed (apart from the 1st person singular) from the above pronouns as follows: 1st person 2nd person Singular Plural çem-i ¡en-i çven-i tkven-i When used without any accompanying noun, these forms function as possessive pronouns (mine, yours, ours).
Ma-s, ama-s, maga-s, ima-s), but the plurals are different (ma-t, ama-t, maga-t, ima-t). g çem-ze on me). The dative has a variety of functions, which will be described as they are encountered in the dialogues. The postpositions -¡i in and -ze on actually govern the dative, though the dative’s -s is lost before the initial sound of these postpositions. g. ma-s-ze on X, ma-s-¡i in X as compared to ama-ze on this, ima-¡i in that. Compare also the presence of -s- in vi-s-ze? on whom? with the lack of -s- in ra-ze?