By Bob Evans, Marko Joas, Susan Sundback, Kate Theobald
Drawing on 3 years of box examine in forty eu cities and towns, Governing Sustainable towns is the 1st booklet to check empirically the techniques of city governance in sustainable improvement. a number of middle matters together with institutional and social ability, institutional layout, social fairness, politics, partnerships and cooperation and inventive policy-making, the authors draw conclusions and supply powerful counsel. This ebook is key studying for policy-makers, politicians, activists and NGOs, planners, researchers and lecturers, no matter if in Europe, North the US, Australasia or transitional and constructing international locations, excited by advancing sustainability in our quickly urbanizing international.
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Extra info for Governing Sustainable Cities
In terms of measuring civic participation, Putnam considers the role of environmental organizations, and notes that although individuals may be members of such organizations, through regular subscriptions, this ‘mail-order membership’ is a poor measure of civic engagement. ‘Card carrying’ membership does not accurately reﬂect involvement in activities; indeed, Putnam and others point out that someone who ‘belongs’ to many groups may be active in none. A reduction in civic engagement in this area may have considerable negative implications for the relationship between local governments and civil society in addressing the requirements of urban sustainable development.
The interviews are used to show the range of topics being addressed in all of the 40 towns and cities (referred to as ‘case studies’). The questionnaire responses are compared with the interview ﬁndings for the top 20 case studies (described later on in the chapter) in order to identify the main areas where local government and civil society respondents concur in their opinions. These sources of data are combined with document analysis and the ﬁeldworker summary reports to provide evidence of tangible policy outcomes.
Putnam suggests one of the reasons for a change in social capital is that place-based social capital is being supplanted by function-based social capital. Putnam sees suburbanization as a key factor. Spatial fragmentation between home and the workplace can be seen as detrimental to civic involvement. Urban ‘sprawl’ disrupts community ties. In addition, Putnam identiﬁes some association between civic disengagement and corporate disengagement through globalization. Furthermore, a larger range of home-based leisure activities, as opposed to activities in public space is associated with decreased civic activism and decreased collective activity (Putnam 2000).