By Geoff Stapleton
Solar electricity – or photovoltaics (PV) – is the world's quickest growing to be strength expertise. it may be used on a wide selection of scales, from unmarried dwellings to utility-scale sunlight farms offering energy for complete groups. it may be built-in into latest electrical energy grids with relative simplicity, which means that during instances of low solar power clients can proceed to attract strength from the grid, whereas strength should be fed or offered again into the grid at a revenue whilst their electrical energy iteration exceeds the quantity they're utilizing. The falling expense of the gear mixed with quite a few incentive schemes worldwide have made PV right into a profitable low carbon funding, and as such call for hasn't ever been larger for the expertise, and for individuals with the services to layout and set up structures.
This Expert guide offers a transparent advent to sun radiation, prior to continuing to cover:
- electrical fundamentals and PV cells and modules
- design of grid-connected PV systems
- system set up and commissioning
- maintenance and bother shooting
- health and safety
- economics and marketing.
Highly illustrated in complete color all through, this is often the fitting advisor for electricians, developers and designers, housing and estate builders, house owners and DIY fans, and an individual who wishes a transparent advent to grid-connected sun electrical expertise.
Read or Download Grid-connected Solar Electric Systems: The Earthscan Expert Handbook for Planning, Design and Installation PDF
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Additional info for Grid-connected Solar Electric Systems: The Earthscan Expert Handbook for Planning, Design and Installation
The most common standards applicable to PV modules are: • • • IEC 61215 Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type approval. IEC 61646 Crystalline thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type approval. IEC 61730 Photovoltaic (PV) module safety qualification – Requirements for construction and requirements for testing. ch. In many countries a PV module must evidence compliance with either IEC 61215 or IEC 61646 (depending on whether it is thin film or crystalline silicon technology) and IEC 61730.
Pv industry and technology 31 some properties of non-metals. There are several different types of silicon solar cell: monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon will be discussed in this chapter. Monocrystalline silicon These solar cells are produced from a single silicon seed crystal placed in a crucible of molten silicon and drawn out slowly while rotating. In this manner it is possible to produce a larger pure crystalline silicon ingot, which is then sliced into thinner wafers. Monocrystalline silicon solar cells are the most efficient and generally the most expensive, although the higher initial cost may be justified by their increased power output as they are highly efficient compared to other silicon technologies.
Solar cell designers focus on capturing the energy carried in visible light. 1 Power and energy The unit of electric power is the watt (W). Power in watts is equal to the product of volts (V) x amperes (amps). e. 1000 watts = 1kW Energy is defined as the capacity to do work, or power, over time. 16 grid-connected solar electric systems Energy (watt-hours) power (watts) w time (hours) EPwt Large amounts of electrical work or energy are expressed in kilowatt-hours1, that is simply the amount of power multiplied by the time it is used.