How Buildings Work: The Natural Order of Architecture by Edward Allen

By Edward Allen

Illustrated with thousands of illuminating line drawings, this vintage consultant finds almost each mystery of a building's functionality: the way it stands up, retains its occupants secure and cozy, will get equipped, grows previous, and dies--and why a few constructions do that loads larger than others. Drawing on issues he is discovered from the numerous constructions he himself designed (and on occasion equipped together with his personal hands), Edward Allen explains advanced phenomena akin to the position of the sunlight in heating constructions and the diversity of structural units which are used for help, from trusses and bearing partitions to post-tensioned concrete beams and corbeled vaults. He stresses the significance of clever layout in facing such difficulties as overheating and overcooling, over the top power use, leaky roofs and home windows, hearth safeguard, and noisy interiors. He serves up a few surprises: thermal insulation is usually a greater funding than sunlight creditors; board fences will not be powerful noise boundaries; there is one kind of window that may be left open in the course of a rainstorm. the recent variation emphasizes ''green'' structure and eco-conscious layout and development. It incorporates a prologue on sustainable development, and comprises new info on subject matters corresponding to the cave in of the area exchange middle, unwell development syndrome, and EIFS mess ups and how they can were avoided. Allen additionally highlights the array of wonderful new construction fabrics now to be had, corresponding to self-cleaning glass, photovoltaics, obvious ceramics, cloud gel, and super-high-strength concrete and structural fibers. Edward Allen makes it effortless for everyone--from armchair architects and sidewalk superintendents to scholars of structure and construction--to comprehend the mysteries and complexities of even the most important construction, from the way it recycles waste and controls the circulate of air, to the way it is saved alive and transforming into.

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Ear, human, 139 earth and sun, 3-6 earth-sheltered buildings, 65, 66 EIFS, 122 elastic modulus, 173 electrical distribution in small buildings, 152-55 in large buildings, 155,156 electricity, 149-57 AC and DC, 150,151 arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI), 155 generation and transmission, 149-52 ground fault circuit interrupter (GFI), 155 low voltage, 156 on-site generation, 156 receptacle, 154 service panel, 152,153 single-phase and three phase, 151 electric resistance heat, 86 electromagnetic spectrum, 129 elevators and escalators, servicing of, 247 enclosure, building, role of, 252 energy, concentrated, 149-57 energy systems other than electricity, 156,157 environment, human, 15-22 equinoxes, 5 ergonomics, 158-71 exits, 220-23 horizontal, 222, 223 expansion joint, 206, 207 exposed systems in buildings, 237 exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS), 122 factor of safety, 174 fan room, 95 fiber optics, 156 fire, area of refuge, 222, 223 controlling, 213-26 causes of injury and death, 215 compartmentation, 215-18 curtain boards, 218 effect on strength of steel, 215,216 extinguishment, 219, 220 helping firefighters, 225, 226 horizontal exit, 222, 223 keeping from spreading, 215-18 keeping from starting, 215 loss of life and property, 214 protecting human life from, 220-23 protecting structure from, 223-25 sprinkler systems, 219, 220 in theaters, 217, 218 fire cut beam, 224 fire escape, iron fire hazard prevention, 243 "fireproof" materials, 223 fire protection of steel, 224, 225 fit of building assemblies, 236 flashings, 114 floor maintenance, 246 floor, raised access, 156 watertightness, 123-35 folded plate, 197 foundations, 201, 202 frost heaving, 126 fusible link, 218, 219 gas heat, 86, 87 getting a building built, 227-38 GFI, 155 glass, heat-absorbing, 78 heat-reflecting, 78 low-e coating, 56 self-cleaning, 245 wired, 217, 218 glazing, double, 55-57 "green" building, x-xiii greenhouse effect, 108 ground fault interrupter, 155 growth and change, designing for, 248,249 health hazards in buildings, 243 hearing and being heard, 138-48 heat, controlling radiation of, 72-80 enters building, leaves building, 81, 82 radiation, conduction, convection, 53-55 heat exchanger, air-to-air, 106,107 regenerative wheel, 106,107 heat pump, 93-94, 97 heating, active, 85-87 fuels, 86, 87 heating systems, heat distribution, 91, 92 hydronic (hot water), 92 steam, 92 warm air, 92 high-intensity discharge lamps, 135 human body, cooling of, 17-19 thermal comfort, 15-19 human civilization, environmental requirements of, 20, 21 human life, environmental requirements of, 19, 20 humidity, controlling, 81-98 relative, 66-71 ice lenses, 126 ice dams, 113,114 illumination, 128-37 insulation, thermal, 55-58 intumescent coating, 224 inverse square law, 72 inversion, atmospheric, 7, 8 inversion, structural, 182 keeping a building alive and growing, 239-51 keeping water out, 109-27 labyrinth joint, 118 ladders, 161 lamps, 134,135 land and water, climatic effects, 10,11 LEED, xi-xiii light, color of, 135 incandescent and fluorescent, 128 reflectance of light by colors, 246 268 light shelf, 133 lighting, artificial, 134-37 daylighting, 131-34 design of, 136,137 lightning rod, 215 loadbearing wall, 175-77 lobby, 163,166,167 low-emissivity (low-e) coating, 56 maintenance of buildings, 244—46 materials of construction, 254 evaluation of, 254 quality assurance, 235, 236 mean radiant temperature, 73, 74 measurement, English system vs.

Ear, human, 139 earth and sun, 3-6 earth-sheltered buildings, 65, 66 EIFS, 122 elastic modulus, 173 electrical distribution in small buildings, 152-55 in large buildings, 155,156 electricity, 149-57 AC and DC, 150,151 arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI), 155 generation and transmission, 149-52 ground fault circuit interrupter (GFI), 155 low voltage, 156 on-site generation, 156 receptacle, 154 service panel, 152,153 single-phase and three phase, 151 electric resistance heat, 86 electromagnetic spectrum, 129 elevators and escalators, servicing of, 247 enclosure, building, role of, 252 energy, concentrated, 149-57 energy systems other than electricity, 156,157 environment, human, 15-22 equinoxes, 5 ergonomics, 158-71 exits, 220-23 horizontal, 222, 223 expansion joint, 206, 207 exposed systems in buildings, 237 exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS), 122 factor of safety, 174 fan room, 95 fiber optics, 156 fire, area of refuge, 222, 223 controlling, 213-26 causes of injury and death, 215 compartmentation, 215-18 curtain boards, 218 effect on strength of steel, 215,216 extinguishment, 219, 220 helping firefighters, 225, 226 horizontal exit, 222, 223 keeping from spreading, 215-18 keeping from starting, 215 loss of life and property, 214 protecting human life from, 220-23 protecting structure from, 223-25 sprinkler systems, 219, 220 in theaters, 217, 218 fire cut beam, 224 fire escape, iron fire hazard prevention, 243 "fireproof" materials, 223 fire protection of steel, 224, 225 fit of building assemblies, 236 flashings, 114 floor maintenance, 246 floor, raised access, 156 watertightness, 123-35 folded plate, 197 foundations, 201, 202 frost heaving, 126 fusible link, 218, 219 gas heat, 86, 87 getting a building built, 227-38 GFI, 155 glass, heat-absorbing, 78 heat-reflecting, 78 low-e coating, 56 self-cleaning, 245 wired, 217, 218 glazing, double, 55-57 "green" building, x-xiii greenhouse effect, 108 ground fault interrupter, 155 growth and change, designing for, 248,249 health hazards in buildings, 243 hearing and being heard, 138-48 heat, controlling radiation of, 72-80 enters building, leaves building, 81, 82 radiation, conduction, convection, 53-55 heat exchanger, air-to-air, 106,107 regenerative wheel, 106,107 heat pump, 93-94, 97 heating, active, 85-87 fuels, 86, 87 heating systems, heat distribution, 91, 92 hydronic (hot water), 92 steam, 92 warm air, 92 high-intensity discharge lamps, 135 human body, cooling of, 17-19 thermal comfort, 15-19 human civilization, environmental requirements of, 20, 21 human life, environmental requirements of, 19, 20 humidity, controlling, 81-98 relative, 66-71 ice lenses, 126 ice dams, 113,114 illumination, 128-37 insulation, thermal, 55-58 intumescent coating, 224 inverse square law, 72 inversion, atmospheric, 7, 8 inversion, structural, 182 keeping a building alive and growing, 239-51 keeping water out, 109-27 labyrinth joint, 118 ladders, 161 lamps, 134,135 land and water, climatic effects, 10,11 LEED, xi-xiii light, color of, 135 incandescent and fluorescent, 128 reflectance of light by colors, 246 268 light shelf, 133 lighting, artificial, 134-37 daylighting, 131-34 design of, 136,137 lightning rod, 215 loadbearing wall, 175-77 lobby, 163,166,167 low-emissivity (low-e) coating, 56 maintenance of buildings, 244—46 materials of construction, 254 evaluation of, 254 quality assurance, 235, 236 mean radiant temperature, 73, 74 measurement, English system vs.

Ear, human, 139 earth and sun, 3-6 earth-sheltered buildings, 65, 66 EIFS, 122 elastic modulus, 173 electrical distribution in small buildings, 152-55 in large buildings, 155,156 electricity, 149-57 AC and DC, 150,151 arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI), 155 generation and transmission, 149-52 ground fault circuit interrupter (GFI), 155 low voltage, 156 on-site generation, 156 receptacle, 154 service panel, 152,153 single-phase and three phase, 151 electric resistance heat, 86 electromagnetic spectrum, 129 elevators and escalators, servicing of, 247 enclosure, building, role of, 252 energy, concentrated, 149-57 energy systems other than electricity, 156,157 environment, human, 15-22 equinoxes, 5 ergonomics, 158-71 exits, 220-23 horizontal, 222, 223 expansion joint, 206, 207 exposed systems in buildings, 237 exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS), 122 factor of safety, 174 fan room, 95 fiber optics, 156 fire, area of refuge, 222, 223 controlling, 213-26 causes of injury and death, 215 compartmentation, 215-18 curtain boards, 218 effect on strength of steel, 215,216 extinguishment, 219, 220 helping firefighters, 225, 226 horizontal exit, 222, 223 keeping from spreading, 215-18 keeping from starting, 215 loss of life and property, 214 protecting human life from, 220-23 protecting structure from, 223-25 sprinkler systems, 219, 220 in theaters, 217, 218 fire cut beam, 224 fire escape, iron fire hazard prevention, 243 "fireproof" materials, 223 fire protection of steel, 224, 225 fit of building assemblies, 236 flashings, 114 floor maintenance, 246 floor, raised access, 156 watertightness, 123-35 folded plate, 197 foundations, 201, 202 frost heaving, 126 fusible link, 218, 219 gas heat, 86, 87 getting a building built, 227-38 GFI, 155 glass, heat-absorbing, 78 heat-reflecting, 78 low-e coating, 56 self-cleaning, 245 wired, 217, 218 glazing, double, 55-57 "green" building, x-xiii greenhouse effect, 108 ground fault interrupter, 155 growth and change, designing for, 248,249 health hazards in buildings, 243 hearing and being heard, 138-48 heat, controlling radiation of, 72-80 enters building, leaves building, 81, 82 radiation, conduction, convection, 53-55 heat exchanger, air-to-air, 106,107 regenerative wheel, 106,107 heat pump, 93-94, 97 heating, active, 85-87 fuels, 86, 87 heating systems, heat distribution, 91, 92 hydronic (hot water), 92 steam, 92 warm air, 92 high-intensity discharge lamps, 135 human body, cooling of, 17-19 thermal comfort, 15-19 human civilization, environmental requirements of, 20, 21 human life, environmental requirements of, 19, 20 humidity, controlling, 81-98 relative, 66-71 ice lenses, 126 ice dams, 113,114 illumination, 128-37 insulation, thermal, 55-58 intumescent coating, 224 inverse square law, 72 inversion, atmospheric, 7, 8 inversion, structural, 182 keeping a building alive and growing, 239-51 keeping water out, 109-27 labyrinth joint, 118 ladders, 161 lamps, 134,135 land and water, climatic effects, 10,11 LEED, xi-xiii light, color of, 135 incandescent and fluorescent, 128 reflectance of light by colors, 246 268 light shelf, 133 lighting, artificial, 134-37 daylighting, 131-34 design of, 136,137 lightning rod, 215 loadbearing wall, 175-77 lobby, 163,166,167 low-emissivity (low-e) coating, 56 maintenance of buildings, 244—46 materials of construction, 254 evaluation of, 254 quality assurance, 235, 236 mean radiant temperature, 73, 74 measurement, English system vs.

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