By Valeri S. Gshalaev, Aleksandra C. Demirchan
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Extra resources for Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Properties and Applications
The influence of the reaction temperature on the crystal dimensions of precipitated CDHA: a – 25 ºC, b – 37 ºC, c – 55 ºC, d – 75 ºC. Most of these techniques produced rod-like crystals or whiskers, while plate-like shapes were obtained in just a few studies [335, 345, 347]. Other preparation methods of nanodimensional and/or nanocrystalline apatites of various states, shapes and sizes include sol-gel [30, 188, 231, 232, 270, 328, 360-376], coprecipitation [271, 333, 334, 377-380], mechanochemical approach [65, 250, 343, 348, 381387], mechanical alloying [388, 389], ball milling [348, 383, 390-392], radio frequency induction plasma [393, 394], vibro-milling of bones , flame spray pyrolysis , liquid-solid-solution synthesis , electro-crystallization [158, 398, 399], electrochemical deposition , microwave processing [32, 69, 288, 333, 334, 342, 356, 401-415], hydrolysis of other calcium orthophosphates [416-418], double step stirring , emulsionbased [310, 349, 420-433], steam-assistant , sonochemical  and solvothermal  syntheses.
A greater cell viability and proliferation of MSCs were measured for nano-sized HA, remarkably for 20 nm-sized particles. However, the opposite phenomenon occurred for bone tumour cells when nano-sized HA were co-cultured with cells. e. smaller particles possessed a greater ability to prevent cell proliferation. This suggests that nano-sized HA can exhibit favorable cell proliferation to optimize biological functionality, in which the particle dimensions are believed to play a key role. These in vitro findings are of a great significance for the understanding of cytophilicity and biological activity of nano-sized particles during biomineralization .
Thus, the degradability of βTCP bioceramics could be additionally regulated by the particle dimensions . Nano-sized whiskers of several calcium orthophosphates (HA, β-TCP and biphasic calcium phosphate BCP (HA + β-TCP)) were produced by using a novel microwave-assisted “combustion synthesis (auto ignition)/molten salt synthesis” hybrid route. Aqueous solutions containing NaNO3, Ca(NO3)2 and KH2PO4 (with or without urea) were irradiated in a household microwave oven for 5 min at 600 watts of power.