By Robert Fiengo
Less than what stipulations are expressions of a language an analogous; while are they various? Indices and id specializes in this question within the context of the idea of anaphora and at the position of indices in characterizing syntactic and semantic identification of expressions. Fiengo and will boost major subject matters in the concept of anaphora. the 1st relates to the which means of coindexing and non-coindexing -- the correspondence among indexical kin between expressions and the valuation relation that holds between them -- whereas the second one is the improvement of Dependency idea, the speculation of the family members of occurrences of indices. the newness of Fiengo and May's technique lies with their characterization of indexical dependencies and the stipulations less than which buildings happen an identical or diversified dependency. In specific, Indices and identification emphasizes matters raised through strict and sloppy identification in ellipsis, exploring what Fiengo and should name "the eliminative puzzles of ellipsis." the importance of those puzzles is that they convey the shortcomings of present theories of anaphora in ellipsis, whereas illustrating an program of Dependency thought to advanced circumstances of strict and sloppy id. Elliptical contexts in flip result in attention of the embedding of the formal syntactic notions of identification coming up from indices and dependencies inside of extra basic notions of structural id. This pertains to a attention of the foundations of reconstruction, which, the authors argue, is syntactic id as much as indexical identification and automobile swap -- edition within the syntactic kind of expression of arguments. The publication concludes with a dialogue of the relation of reconstruction, logical illustration in grammar, and the appliance of grammatical constraints. The dialogue specializes in antecedent contained deletion, and stands independently as a finished examine of this development. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph No. 24
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Additional resources for Indices and Identity (Linguistic Inquiry Monographs)
But this is to miss the point about such examples, since coreference is possible when even is missing, as shown in (66). Since these examples are illustrations of inferences via universal instantiation, no matter of presuppositions or implicatures is involved here. Reference, Coreference, Not-Coreference 29 there must be some way of marking co reference other than by means of the pronoun whose anaphoric status is being reported. This can be achieved by taking the metafragment as being defined by the inapplicability of Principle C of Binding Theory.
We want Principle C to limit the circumstances under which two object words may have the same object as their reference, not to require or prohibit the inalterable fact that the reference of an object word cannot be the same as the reference of a concept word. We fare no better if we represent Griswold is a cook as in (81), with coindexing: (81) Griswold 1 is [a cook]1 Here we would be asserting that Griswold, that person, is the same as the concept of being a cook, which is nonsense. The underlying problem with the approach to indexing just described is that it reduces predicational sentences to identificational ones.
A device corresponding to repetition of proper names is used for reporting on occurrences of bound variables by the use of demonstratives (again with emphasis to mark the register). Thus, a logic teacher may describe one reading of Every man loves some woman by saying For every man, there is some woman, such that that man loves that woman. This contrivance can also be used in order to explicate pronouns employed as bound variables. This allows (65) to stand in for Every man thinks he is happy in technical (or other appropriate) discourses: (65) Every man l thinks that man l is happy Another technical application is in elucidating the description of logical reasoning, so that we can report instances of the inference from "'vx(Pxa)" to "P(aa)" as in (66) (adapting an example from Evans 1980), where the former repeats a numeral, the latter, a proper name: (66) a.