By Robert B. Northrop
Size SYSTEMSIntroductionMeasurement method ArchitectureErrors in MeasurementStandards utilized in MeasurementsChapter SummaryProblemsANALOG sign CONDITIONINGIntroductionDifferential AmplifiersOperational AmplifiersAnalog lively filter out functions utilizing Op-AmpsInstrumentation AmplifiersNonlinear Analog sign Processing via Op-Amps and by way of distinctive functionality ModulesCharge AmplifiersPhase delicate RectifiersChapter SummaryProblemsNOISE AND COHERENT INTERFACE IN MEASUREMENTSIntroductionRandom Noise in CircuitsPropagation of Gaussian Noise via Linear FiltersBroadband Noise issue and Noise. Read more...
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Means of inducing constant velocity, uy, not shown. 52. Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurement 26 uy ¼ dy=dt, around Y1, a voltage, V ¼ dÈ=dt, will be induced in Áthe À À superconducting Á coil across the current source. We also note that dÈ=dt ¼ dÈ=dy dy=dt . Now, from these relations, it is easy to see that Mg=I ¼ dÈ=dy ¼ V=uy Solving this relation for I gives: À Á I ¼ Mguy =V ð1:52Þ Kibble’s proposed method of measuring dc current thus requires accurate knowledge of the mass, M, and the local acceleration of gravity, g.
1 MHz. 3 Physical Standards The physical standards discussed below include mass, length, volume and temperature. g. the present use of the JJ to define the volt instead of the Weston normal cell). 1 Mass The present (SI) unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). It is defined in terms of the standard kilogram artifact which has been kept at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) at Se`vres, France, for over a hundred years. Physically, the standard kilogram is a cylinder of platinum containing 10% iridium.
It should be pointed out that not all measurands are linear functions of a single independent variable and the above analysis represents one of the simpler cases in statistical data analysis. 4 Standards Used in Measurements One of the main concerns of all those who have occasion to make a measurement is whether the instrument is calibrated or not. As seen above, calibration is necessary, along with precision, to enable accurate measurements to be made. Calibration implies observing the instrument’s performance when measuring a standard of some sort.