By George Karleskint, Richard Turner, James Small
Immerse your self in advent TO MARINE BIOLOGY and fast study the content material of the direction. whereas taking an ecological procedure, this biology textual content presents succinct assurance of the content material whereas the photographs and artwork in actual fact illustrates key techniques. learning is made effortless with phonetic pronunciations, a working thesaurus of key phrases, end-of-chapter questions, and internet sites supplied on the finish of the bankruptcy, and lists of comparable articles came upon through the textual content.
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Type III curves indicate higher death rates among the young but increased survival for those organisms that survive past a certain age. (b) Not all organisms have life histories that conveniently ﬁt one of these three curves in part (a). For instance, herring gulls, Larus argentatus, have Type III survivorship curves as chicks and Type II survivorship curves as adults. Life History The life history of any organism can be divided into three phases: birth, reproduction, and death. Three aspects of life history affect the number of offspring a female will produce in her lifetime: clutch size, number of reproductive events, and age at first reproduction.
When studying populations biologists begin by defining the area in which the organisms will be studied. One researcher may study the population of hermit crabs in a single salt marsh while another may study the population of tuna in a region of the South Pacific. Marine biologists are not only interested in the geographical range of a population but also the size of the population within its range. Sometimes it is possible to determine the population size by simply counting the number of individuals within its range.
A) Under proper conditions, some marine organism populations can grow exponentially. A graph of exponential growth gives a characteristic J-shaped curve. (b) As the growth of a population approaches its carrying capacity, the graph ﬂattens out. As a result, the logistic growth curve shown here has somewhat of an S-shape. Fundamentals of Ecology 25 What factors determine the carrying capacity of an environment? Biologists have attempted to divide these factors into two categories. Factors that vary with population size are called density-dependent factors.