By Professor J. Barry Dawson (auth.)
In nowadays of knowledge explosion and high-cost publishing, it truly is maybe merely moderate for an writer to persuade the examining public that it truly is getting whatever worthy studying. in the end, severe examine into the higher mantle over the last 20 years has already led to a few volumes on kim berlites and their xenoliths. So why another one? First, during this e-book i've got targeting kimberlite as a person rock-type and a sampler of the higher mantle, within the desire of complementing such monographs as Deep seated inclusions in kimberlites and the matter of the composition of the higher mantle via N. V. Sobolev and Geologie du Diamant by way of M. G. Bardet, that have targeted extra on particular elements of kimberlite and top mantle geology; consequently i haven't tried to explain diamond prospecting and mining and, even though i've got tried to offer a few of the updated perspectives on xenolith petrology, the confines of area haven't accredited me to discover the complexities of the higher mantle as deeply as has Sobolev. moment, the literature is great and i've attempted to tug jointly for the reader the wide variety of perspectives and infor mation provided either within the contemporary geological literature and in fresh multi-author volumes equivalent to the complaints Vol umes of the 2 overseas meetings on Kimberlite held at Capetown in 1973 and Santa Fe in 1977.
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Extra resources for Kimberlites and Their Xenoliths
It was formerly believed that these all belonged to one phase of activity, but recent radiometric work (summarized by Naeser 1971) indicates two periods of volcanic activity, one of Middle-to-Late Pleistocene age when monchiquites dyke and diatreme injection took place with alkalic basalt extrusion in the Hopi Buttes area, and an older phase of activity in the middle Oligocene when the kimberlites were intruded together with minettes. In addition, the Buell Park kimberlite has been intruded by a ring-dyke of minette.
Ultramafic dykes, some with kimberlitic affmities, in the Kimberley area, and one is cut by the Wesselton pipe. The fragmented material within the diatreme may also be cut by later dykes of either massive kimberlite or kimberlite tuffisite which may also extend out into the country-rock. The later dykes may be simple planar bodies or may wind sinuously through the main diatreme ftlling; in the case of the Premier Mine (Fig. 9) later calcite-rich dykes radiate out from a vertical central column in the western end of the mine.
It is a matter of record that it was the presence of diamond in the gold gravels of the Lena River that stimulated the search resulting in the discovery of the Yakutia kimberlite province. The close connection between placer diamond deposits (of widely varying age) and Archaean gneiss/greenstone terrains is relevant to the discussion of possible diamond sources. rlites Ghana (that contains considerable concentrations of diamond in meta-greywackes - Junner 1943; Grantham 1967) should be unique, and Dawson (1979a) has reviewed the evidence, scanty at present, for igneous rock-types other than kimberlite being the parent of diamond.