By Marianne Ekman, Björn Gustavsen, Björn Terje Asheim, Öyvind Pålshaugen
Participation and social accountability in innovation is the core subject of this ebook. either are problems with association and never of ethics, or the enforcement of alternative varieties of responsibilities on person actors. the necessity is for a democratization of innovation which can make innovation open to extensive participation.
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Additional info for Learning Regional Innovation: Scandinavian Models
Such institutional speciﬁcities both contribute to the formation of divergent national business systems and constitute the context within which different organizational forms with different mechanisms for learning, knowledge accumulation and knowledge appropriation have evolved. Through its emphasis on institutional complementarities, the ‘varieties of capitalism’ approach focuses on dynamic ensembles of mutually reinforcing sets of institutions rather than isolating individual forms and their impact.
Knowledge inputs and outputs are, in this type of knowledge base, more often codiﬁed Bjørn T. Asheim 29 than in the other types. This does not imply that tacit knowledge is irrelevant, since both kinds of knowledge are always involved and needed in the process of knowledge creation and innovation (Johnson et al. 2002; Nonaka et al. 2000). g. in R&D departments) and outcomes tend to be documented in reports, electronic ﬁles or patent descriptions. These activities require the people involved to have speciﬁc qualiﬁcations and capabilities.
These two modes of innovation will also be differently manifested with regard to regional specialization and clustering. , forthcoming). What is important with the innovation system perspective for explaining the ‘paradox’ of the Nordic states is that this perspective has partly contributed to extending the deﬁnition of innovation from the traditional linear view of starting with science and ending up with new products to a view of innovation as interactive learning, which implies that all industries and sectors can be innovative, that is not only R&D intensive, high-tech ﬁrms and sectors but also medium- and low-tech ﬁrms and sectors.